Tanveer Ahmad Important Medical Points for Medical Students

41.Transfusion reaction will not occur in a pt if we transfuse the = .group A with O( as O is universal donor )

42.Which of the following does not cross placenta easily = Ig M

45. Which drug is used in the treatment of hirsutism = .antiandrogens

46.Most common organism involved in infection caused by IUCD = .actinomycosis47.ECF differ from ICF in = .high conc. of Na & Ca ( if only volume is mentioned in the options the click that one)

48.diffrence of smooth n skeletal muscle = .Ca-Calmodulin complex is present in smooth muscles

49.In partial mole,karyotype is = 69XXY (46XX is complete mole )

50.If carbohydrate is separated from proteins what will be the fate = aggregation & precipitation

51.Lysozome contains = hydrolases

52. Following is Autosomal Dominant Disorder= Hereditary Spherocytosis 53-Capsule of liver in known as = Glissons

54-Most common site of thyroglossal cyst is: = Infrahyoid

55.Cancer is Least Related To = Traumatic injury

56.What Age The Head Of Fetus Become Exactly Half The Length At CRL =3rd Month

57.Not Included In Blood Coagulation Profile = Anti thromboin 3

58.Starling Law of the heart =Explains increase in Cardiac Output that occurs when venous return is increased.

59.Scenario Of Fissure. Pain Due To Which Nerve = Inferior Rectal

60.Pendular knee jerk is the result of = UMN lesion (Pendular knee Jerk cerebellum >> UMN )

61.Medial side of arm is supplied by =. Medial cord

62.Bare area of liver is limited by= Coronary ligament

63.During a surgery a surgeon nicks hepatoduodenal ligament. Which structure is likely to be damaged = Bile duct

64.Capsule of left kidney prevents the spread of infection to = Other kidney

65.Which one is secreted after sweating = Increase ADH

66.Baby born edematous aftr 2 days shows signs of renal failure on examination rounded mass in pelvic area on autopsy cystic mass is seen. Diagosis = failure of union of mesonephros n ureteric bud

67.B lymphocytes are associated with = CD 19 & 20

68.Which of the following ulcer is caused by synergistic infection by microaerophilic non hemolytic streptococci and aerobic hemolytic staphylococci =

.Meleney’s ulcer

89.testies drain into : para-aortic lymph nodes ( as gonadal vessels arise from abdominal aorta, that why drainage is towards para aortic lymphnodes )

90.Best way to diagnose intraamniotic infection is by : detection IL-6,

91.During exercise increased blood supply to muscles is due to = Local metabolites 92.True regarding male reproductive system = Testosterone produced by leydig cells of testes.

93.ovarian cancer first metastasize to = par aortic lymph nodes. 94.structure passing through pelvic inlet is = ureter95.Mullerian duct counterpart = rete testis cords

96.common iliac arteries = crossed by ureter at their bifurcation 97.Ileococcygeal ligament located at level of = L2

98.which of the following is most likely correct regarding lesser pelvic in female = has an outlet bounded by ischeopubic rami and sacrotuberous ligaments

99.secondary oocyte indergoes the 2nd reduction devision = after fertilization

1700.in which of the following conditions ocps contraindicated = migraine

01.after 5 years of transplant surgery there is an increase incidence of : = lymphoproliferative disorders

02.longest incubation period = HIV

03.primary oocyte surrounded by zona pellucida and zona granullosa and fluid filled spaces is most likely = secondry follicle

04.female 28 weeks gestation,, presents with poly hydroamnios what is the problem with fetus = duedenal atresia

05.which of the following are boundaries of pelvic inlet = pubic crest06.female with cervical dysplasia, , which test will be 95% reliable = pap smear 07.Pulmonary blood flow hindered by = Pulmonary embolism

08.ligament which held uterus in anteverted position and can be palpated on rectal examination = uterosacral ligament

09.Female with arthritis, rashes,, rynouds phenomenon, which is “specifiic” test = anti Ds antibodies (note that if asked about sensitive, then ANA is more sensitive) 10.sensitive marker of myocardial damage = Troponin T

11.WHICH of the following is associated with adult polycystic kidney disease =cerebral hemorrhage ( if sub arachnoid heamorrhages is present in options, prefer that)

12.isotonic and isometric cintraction. isotonic contraction is different by =consume more phosphate bonds

13.anemic hypoxia is caused by = methehemoglobinemia

14. inc in both renal blood flow d GFR = dilatation of afferent arterioles15.chronic renal failure cause of anemia = Erythropoieten dec production

16.gamma motor neurons are present at the = end of intrafusal fibers

17.lady with major abdominal surgery develops dyspnea = Pulmonary embolism18.before giving sodium valproate = LFT,s ( as the most dangerous adverse effect of valproic acid is fulminant hepatitis )

19.function of hcg = maintains corpus luteum ( prevents from involution and any of the options can be asked so memorize both)

20.gold standard for breat cancer = Mamography

21.53 years old lady admitted in comatose stated, blood sugar 400, +4 sugar in urine,, no ketone bodies and albuminuria = DM2

22.Philtrum of upper lip = Tw0 Medial nasal processes23.intermittent pain of small intestine is felt = Umblical region

24.after 15 days of c- section due to obstructive labour.. pt developed urinary incontinence. what is the most likely cause = Vesico vaginal fistula

25.breast lobes = separated by interlobar stroma

26.how good is a test at correctly diagnosi diagnosing people with the condition. Feature qualifies = Sensitivity

27.pO2 is lower in arterial blood than pulmonary blood because– diffusion to occur 28.lady with back ach on right side,neck of femur fractured due to slipage in washroom.Blood calcium is raised and calcium appeared in urine,, diagnosis =hyperparathyroidism

29.enzymes are specific for male and female hormones production,,, enzyme only for female hormones production = aromatase

30.male pt with severe hemorrhage,presented in unconscious state,, transfused with 2 weeks old blood ,Blood mainly contain = Rbcs

31.cells which contain sense granules and have igE antibodies on their cell membrane are = basophills

32.current bone density is assessed b = dexa Scan

female presented with some epithelial changes nd hpv +ve.Again presents and pap smear shows large cells with large nucleus.Diagnosis = dysplasia ( note ; Cervical dysplasia, HPV infection > IUCD, while most common cause of cervical metaplasia is Multiparity > IUCD)

33.Tachyphylaxis = Diminish unresponsiveness adapted quickly (in simple words, rapidly developing tolerance to a drug is called tachyphylaxis)

34.Powerful vasoconstrictor = Cocaine

35.True about pudendal nerve = Supplies muscles of perineum 36.GnRh is not inhibited by = Carcinoma

37.Ureter is supplied by all except = Inferior mesenteric arteries38.Myleperoxidase is an enzyme present in = Neutrophil

39.Fourty ears lady with 2 year history of pruritis ,for the last 6 months having xanthoma, hepatospleenomegaly, which investigation will confirm Diagnosis =Antimitochondrial antibody (a scenario of primary biliary cirrhosis)

38.Milk presents in the breast during pregnancy with normal prolactin Level but no lactation it is due to inhibitory effect of = Progesteron (actually estrogen and progesterone both result in the development of breast during pregnancy but at the same time they also inhibit lactation, if in options only one is asked then PROGESTERON should be preferred )

39.Inferior orbital branch is a terminal branch of = Maxillary artery

40.Amniotic fluid embolism = During labor and postpartum (CMDT states , “though uncommon still amniotic fluid embolism is one of the complication of labor and immediate postpartum period” )

41.Nerves/muscle not leaving pelvis thru greater sciatic foramen = Obturator42.Parturition is caused by or started = Fetal cortisol (fetal cortisol increases oxytocin receptors on uterus there by increasing its sensitivity secondly it enhances the enzymatic degradation of Progesteron, resulting in termination of pregnancy)

43.Cardiac output maximum in = After delivery ( though not an easy concept; but let’s simplify, ●● ●after delivery a lot of blood enters into maternal circulation, that inc blood volume and BP, secondly we know that increasing the number of capillaries decreases blood pressure, ie via parallel resistance mechanism, after delivery, placenta is lost decreasing number of capillaries and thus BP shoots up, that’s why most common cause of death after delivery is cerebral hemorrhage, .. Ref Francis physiology)

44.Pars distalis = supplied from superior hypophyseal artery

45.burkits lymphoma is caused by EBV because = Antibodies to viral capsid are present in all individuals with burkitt lymphoma

46.40 years lady with post coital bleeding and inter menstrual bleeding on examination hypertrophic cervix, first investigation to do = Cervical smear47.Inscisionall hernia 1st structure taking from within outwards = Transversls fascia

48.Succinylcholine = Actions is prolonged due to the deficiency of psuedocholinestrase ( because this drug is inactivated by enzyme pseudocholinestrase)

49.If 28 day cycle on day 21 progesterone will be = 10ng ( During Mid leutal phase progestrone should be more than 10 ng)

50.Insulin dependent uptake of Glucose into =skeletal muscle (Sembulingam states that; usually glucose is transported into the cells by Na-Glucoseco-transporter , but most the cells have another transport protein called glucose transporter ie GLUT, among these GLUT-4 is insulin sensitive and it Is present in large amount in muscle fibers and adipose cells and via GLUT-4 transporter, insulin pushes glucose into two cells, ie adipose and skeletal muscles )

51. transpyloric plane is located at = lower border of L1 ( structures lie at the level of trasnpyloric plane = pylorus of stomach , fundus of gall bladder, Hilum of kidney, first part of duodenum , origin of superior mesenteric artery the tips of 9thcostal cartilages, and lower end of spinal cord if lower bordr of l1 is not there click upper border of L2)

52.Pyruvate intermediate between = Glucose and acetyl coA

( Glycolsis ends up giving 2 molecules of pyruvate ,which after conversion into actyl CoA and enters krebs cycle )

53.Pretracheal infection will be transferred to =Anterior mediastinum

54.Spinal anesthesia is given to a patient, there is sudden loss of sensation due to = loss of vasomotor tone

55.Insulin increases by = GIP ( Gastrin, CCK , GIP , secretin and GLP-1 all inc insulin secretion, but GIP AND GLP-1 are the most potent )

56.Basal ganglia is involved in = Initiating movement57.Hypokalemia on ECG is represented by = U wave58.Regarding the end arteries = Present more in the vital organsEnd artries then central retinal artery > splenic artery

● if asked functional end artry then click heart )

59.Female in labour, station 2 on PV, ischial spines inverted, arch less triangular, which type pelvis is this = Anthropoid

60.Blood leaving placenta has how much percentage of PO2 = 30 %61.Craniophrangioma ablation is done in a woman due to tumor, what is required for ovulation = HMG followed by HCG

62.Which drug does not cause teratogenicity = flouxeten63.In chronic intra vascular hemolysis = Dec heptoglobin

64.Severe bradycardia and low pulse, oculocardiac reflex is stimulated, what is the immediate treatment = Stop stimulus

65.Syncope is not a recognized feature of = Haemophilia

66.The most common cause of anemia in pregnancy = Haemodilution67.Suprapubic incisioňis given by a surgeon, artery injured in the suprapubic fat is

= inferior epigastric

68.Pudndal nerve does NOT supply = Posterior vaginal fornices ( its one of the most frequently repeated question, so memorize it by MNEMONIC; P repels P ie PUDENDAL does not supply Posterior fornix )

69.Least likely cause in 17 to 20 weeek abortion = Fetal cytogenetic abnormality 70.Regarding hylaine cartilage = Collagen fibers are not visible

71.How can rubella infection be prevented = Anti rubella vaccine ( for prevention child bearing females should be vaccinated)

72.Insoluble storage form of iron in iron overload = Hemosiderin73.Torch can causes congenital abnormalities except = Pneumonia74.The gland having more serous portion is = Parotid gland

75.True about kidney and relations of different structures passing through it is = Left renal vein is anterior to aorta and left renal artery

78.Nerve supply of urogenital triangle = Ilioinguinal nerve 79.Nerve supply of detrusor muscle = S2, S3, S4

80.Women having lack of vagitable diet resulting deficiencies = Anencephaly81.Visual impulse is associated with = Dissociation of rhodopsin to retinal and opsin

82.most dangerous type of hepatitis for pregnt ladyin near future = Hep E ( so the rule is , lethal in pregnancy is Hep E while most lethal if pregnancy is not mentions, is Hep D , ie D for Deadly)

83.premalignant leision of vulva = Condyloma

84.breast lymphatic drai upper outer qud = ant axillarynodes ( also remember another frequently tested fact that, sentinel lymph node biopsy is done in order to decrease needles axillary clearance in lymph node negative patients Ref; Oxford medicine)

85.prolactin regultd by = Dopamine ( Dopamine is also called prolactin inhibitory hormone as it inhibits Prolactin)

86.regarding levator ani muscle = Supplied by pudendal nerve

87.UV prolapsed most common complication = Chronic cervicitis and metaplsia 88.regardingg menopause correct one is = Inc gonadotophins ( Dec Estrogen and increase FSH and LH )

89.regarding sorbitol = Alcohol sugar

90.True about uremic nephropathy = Normocytic normochromic anemia 91.A disc is herniated, it will affect = spinal nerve+ posterior root 92.Phrenic nerve is related to which artery = Pericardiophrenic artery

93.Which immunoglobulin is present in RH incompatibility = IgG

94.The most common route of transmission of HBV and HCV is through =Through sharps and needles

95.Thirst is increased by = decrease in plasma volume

96.Which mechanism is involved in carrying the particle inside the cell when actin, myosin and clathrin are involved = receptor medicated Pinocytosis(whenever u see clathrin, in the stem , click receptor mediated endocytosis/pinocytosis, and its most common mechanism for cholesterol uptake by cell)

97. Estrogen’s side effect = Thromboembolism ( while low dose estrogen containing pills cause hepatic adenoma, also note that hepatic adenoma is caused by a class 3 antiarrythmic ie AMIODORONE)

98.Left renal vein = Anterior to aorta and left renal artery

99. local metabolites in skeletal muscles = Decrease TPR ( note that Autoregulation is mainly by Local metabolites in skeletal muscles brain and coronary arteries)

1800.Below knee amputation irregular mass after sometime = Neuroma

Session # seven; Accept the challenges so that you can feel the exhilaration of victory. George S. Patton

1.Eating undercooked and raw meet can cause infestation by = tape worm

(Note that, taenia solium via uncooked pork , T.Saginata via uncooked beef & fish tape worm (Diphyllobothrium latum) via uncooked fish)

2.A postmenupasual women suffered fracture due to osteoporosis her Ca is decreased and phosphorus is increased , she has = inc PTH

3- Mass movement is affected in colon due to problem in = Auerbach plexus (while submucosal plexus are for secretions )

4- In an adult Ileactomy and jejunectomy has been done. He has diarhoea and 15-20bowel sounds per minute. The most likely cause of this decreased transit time in the intestine is due to = secreroy plus osmotic

5- treatment of vWD = Cryoprecipitate ( cyopreciptate should be pronounced ascryoprecipit-8 as it contains factor 8, and in vwd factor 8 is depleted )

6- The head of femur in adult is supplied by = Medial and lateral circumflex artery ( while in children its supplied by OBTURATER artery)

7- Head of humerus is supplied by = Anterior circumflex ( while fracture will damage posterior circumflex artery)

8. A man having recurrent bacterial infections with streptococci also having diarrhea which on examination showed giardiasis, further exam revealed normal T cells but ↓B cells levels of igM,igG and igA were given = Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia ( this scenario is repeatedly encountered so plz NOTE THE WORD GIARDIASIS , and that will help u in memorizing stem.)

9- A 6 years child who develops muscular weakness. Anti voltage gated calcium chanel antibodies are presen = Lambert Eaton syndrome

10- Infarction of posterior 1/3 of interventricular septum.artery involed -.RCA ( while the anterior 2/3 of septum is supplied by left ant descending arter ie LAD)11- Right border of heart is formed by = right atrium ( IF ASKED in xray the right border is formed by rt atrium plus SVC, AND if this option is not present then click only SVC )

12. which is a small blue cell tumour asociated with large amount of catecholamines in child = Neuroblastoma

13- which of the following prevents muscle tear under high pressure = Golgi tendon organ (note, when the muscle is in tension = Golgi tendon starts firing and muscle get relaxed in response )

14-Which of the following ulcer is caused by synergistic infection by microaerophilic non hemolytic streptococci and aerobic hemolytic staphlococci = Meleney’s ulcer 15- Cholecystectomy is done, where to put the drain = Subhepatic space

16-Esophagectomy done stomach is mobilized to upper portion of thorax ..To anastomosis with phayrnx, Which artery is responsible for stomach supply now =right gastroepiploic artery ( if this artery is not mentioned in options then click RIGHT GASTRIC artery)

17-common Postop infection in hospital cause by which organism = Staph Aureus ( second most common is E coli)

18-clawhand produced by unopposed action of = extensor digitorum and flexor digitorum profundus

19-Recurrent renal stone associated with which amino acid abnormality = Lysine20- Rotator cuff is formed by = supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and Subscapularis ( memorize by Mnemonic SITS )

21-If FACTOR IX not available = FFP (Note that if asked which is used as immediate antidote to WARFARIN then as is FFP not Vit K, because vitK Needs time to work and not imp for immediate action )

22-which of the following drain into superior mesenteric lymph node = Jejunum ( also remember that jejunum is supplied by both GREATER , LESSER Splanchnic nerve while stomach by Greater splanchnic nerve )

23-Drug which is strong analgesic but not a good anesthetic –nitrous oxide

24- peptic ulcer profusely bleeding from posterior wall of duodenum…which artery involved = gastroduodenal artery ( memorize this artery by the site of ulcer i-e ulcer is common in Gastric n Duodenal parts of gut so artery should be GASTRO- DUODENAL in case of bleed)

25- Lumbar puncture = L4 L5 (While L3 L4 should be clicked if L4 L5 is not present in option )

26-Seminoma is a tumour in male, its equivalent when occurs in ovary then its called = dysgerminoma

27- Which of the following is mostly premalignant in the oral cavity –Erythroplakia28- A female pt was having generalized pain, and has been taking NSAIDs for a long time. Now developed swelling n big toe, wht will b present in fluid aspirate = mono sodium urate crystals

29- About small intestine true is small intestine = 6-8meters long

30.Compression effects on esophagus by which organ enlargement = Left Atrium ( as it’s the most posterior part of heart and lies almost over esophagus )

31.Prostatic carcinoma spread to skull bones through = Vertebral plexus

32.A Person wid malignant melanoma. Risk factor = Xeroderma pigmentosum33.Apoptosis = cell shrinking ( if councelman body is mentioned in options then click that )

34.Open wound healing includes = myofibroblast

35.An obese man with h/o atherosclerosis underwent laparotomy due to bleeding in abdomen n during surgery, his small gut was purple n sup mesenteric artry was blocked , so what is dx =wet gangrene

36. Aortic aneurysm which structure not compressed = Phrenic nerve37.regarding cimitidine intake what effect causes =.inibition of hepatic enzymes38.ewing sarcoma occurs which site of bone = diaphysis

39.K in diet is excreted in which part of nephron = distal tubules (Note that, 67% of the filtered K is reabsorbed along proximal tubule , but Distal tubules and collecting ducts either reabsorb or secrete K , depending on dietary K intake, the excretion ranges from 1% to 110% . if both DCT and collecting duct are present in options prefer, distal convoluted tubules)

40.after non-lethal MI in 4 minutes = arrhythmias

41.Adductor muscle hamstring muscle supplied by which nerve = tibial

42.a statistical test observed differences b/w 2 means been by chance = variance43..max pressure in aorta during which phase = max during slow ejection phase ( while lowest in isovolumetric contraction)

44.remant of geburnaculum,= Ovarian ligament and round ligament of uterus45.left renal vein relation to aorta = LRV is anterior

46.cause of thromboembolism = prolonged immobilization(most common)s

47.commonest cause of shift of K from intracellular to extracellular = strenuous exercise (releases K from skeletal muscle)

48.damage to medulla oblongata during hanging = odontoid

49.sternocleidomastoid causes = movement of head in opposite direction against force(resistance)

50-platelets have life span of = 10 days

(note that platlets Count increases after spleenectomy the first effect we see after spleenectomy is Increased Platelet count ie thrombocytosis as the sequestered RBCs are put into circulation, and the HOWEL JOLLY BODIES are after that, )

51.multiple bone fractures history,blue sclera which products enzyme is defiecient =Collagen (the scenario is osteogenesis imperfecta)

52..MELAS syndrome histological finding = Red ragged fibers53..Giant Cell Tumors histo finding = Soap Bubble appearance

54.Platelets cannot be given in = Spleenomegaly (if asked contraindicated then Platelets are Contraindicated in Itp)

55.Bipolar cells are found in = olfactory

56.lobes of breast through many terminal ducts open into = lactiferous sinus 57.Left adrenal gland drains into = Left renal (same is the case for left testicular vein that also drains into left renal vein )

58.Free radical injury produces pathology by affecting = DNA

59.A 60 year old woman known case of Ischemic heart disease, Carcinoma breast has now come with osteoporosis. Which drug you will prescribe to treat her = Raloxifene60.In osteoporosis which of the fallowing is defective = Ostoclasts

61.Fast impulse passes through = Pukinje fibers

62.Internal laryngeal nerve passes through = thyroid and hyoid63.liver development = from ventral mesentery proximal Foregut

64.patient developed hemolysis due toG6PdD deificiency nxt happen = self limiting65.required for transport of B12 in blood = TC2

66. Anemia with Blast Cells in peripheral blood = Erythroblastosis fetalis ( note the point ie BLAST in the question and BLAST in the answer )

67.Deep to post digastric and near palatoglossus a structure runs obliquely upwards = Lingual artery

68.hip extension and leg flexion by = semitendonosis

69.Universal donor = O negative ( while universal recipient is AB positive )70.Which structure is formed by the end of first week = blastocyst

71.-injury above sacral spinal cord result in = Spastic bladder (note that UMN lesion ie the lesion above sacral spine is = spastic bladder while due to lesion of the sacral spinal cord segments or sacral spinal nerve roots , means LMN lesion result in so called Atonic bladder. Neurogenic bladder is the term used for both spastic and atonic, so if clear-cut point is not asked then , prefer neurogenic bladder)

72.Cell membrane structure primarily maintained by = Cholesterol bilayer73.Enzyme may fall in liver injury = Pseudocholinesterases [decrease in liver disease(hepatitis and cirrhosis)]

74. which part of liver with poor supply = poor oxygenation of zone 3 ( note that zone 1 is richly supplied with blood and is mainly effected by VIRUSES & INGESTED TOXINS, while zone 3 is poorly perfused and mainly affected by metabolic toxins )75.trachea is = has 16-20 incomplete rings

76.hyper eosinophilia occurs in = hodgkin ( due to IL5, that stimulates the esinophills production )

77.corticopsinal track ends at which level = spinal cord (if asked anterior corticospinal tract or anterior spinothalamic tract ends at ?? the ans for both is = midthoracic region )

78.warthin starry stain used for = spirochete( S for starry and S for spirochete)79.phrenic nerve runs on left side with = pericardicophrenic artery

80.hypovolaemia with hypotension isoflurane shud not be given,why? b/c it is =Potent vasodilator

81.Otic ganglion location foramen was asked = inferior border of foramen ovale82.Epitheluim of preterminal bronchiole/ conducting zone = Pseudostratified columnar cilliated…with goblets in larger bronchiole (in resp bronchioles> cuboidal, then simple squamous upto the alveoli] {clara cells in terminal bronchioles} )

83.muscle which causes flexion of elbow & supplied by radial nerve= Brachioradialis84.hormones increased during sleep = Growth hormone (note growth hormone increases during sleep but if asked During sleep inc level than awake click cortisol)85..chest pain and fever not related to respiration = Myocarduim

86..in later stage of pregnancy oestrogen and progesterone produce by = placenta87..A patient has hypercouagable state having def of = factor v(facror V Leiden)88..difference BTW skeletal and smooth muscle = ca calmodulin

89..Valve involved in Limb sack endocarditis = Mitral & aortic90..Abdominal angina cause by obstruction to = Sup mesenteric91..middle colic is the branch of = Superior mesenteric artery92..geniculate ganglion is located in = facial canal

93..taste sensation is carried to the cortex through = thalamus

94..two point discrimination = merkel disc (If asked ,Maximum 2 point discrimination at then= Lips( TIP OF TONGUE BEST IF THERE ) while if the stem is

“Maximum distance of 2 point discrimination at” then = BACK OR scapula)95..oesophageal atresia = drooping of saliva (indicating factor)96..Aluminium hydroxide in = delays gastric emptying (causes constipation)

97..long refractory period = heart ( and due to this long refractory period cardiac muscles cannot be tetanized )

98..defeciency of glucose 6 Phosphatase causes = hypoglycemia.. 99. Increase GFR causes inc absorption of salt and water from = PCT

98.Infection in cavournes sinus = INF OPTH VEIN (inferior ophthalmic vein for infection and superior for thrombosis )

99..cause of damage to lateral rectus = 6th CN

1900..which one is the DNA virus = Infectious mononucleosis

01..Arterial emboli mostly arises from = Mural left atrium

02.Most of girls have amenorrhea during lactation, cause is = It inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone ( ie FSH and LH)

03.True about breast = Arise from mammary buds present on the memory line04.A patient having AIDS may also have one of the following with AIDS = cervical Carcinoma

05.Severe hypomagnesemia may result in one of the following = Hypocalcemia (note that hypomagnesaemia causes hypercalcemia while severe hypomagnesaemia causes HYPOCALCEMIA )

06.The time interval between 1st and 2nd heart sound is almost equal to =Ventricular systole

07.The side effect of chewing betal nut = submucosal Fibrosis

08.Aldosterone is secreted in response to = inc in plasma potassium

(● inc in plasma potassium is the most potent stimulant for Aldosterone,

while the most potent stimulant for ADH is nausea &

most potent stimulus for renin is sympathetic drive )

09.More mitochondria are present at the apex of which of the following = ciliated cells

10.Physiological jaundice = After the 2nd day of birth of the baby (JAUNDICE on day 1 is always pathologic while in preterm babies, even jaundice on day 2 is pathologic )11.Parents are informed about the disability of their child due to a debilitating disease. The first reaction of the parents is = Denial

12.shortening of chromosome in mutation….enzyme responsible is = telomerase ( this enzyme is responsible for the specific number of divisions a cell should go through, and with every division cell shortens and apoptosis is the end result, if this mechanism is defective , cell will evade apoptosis and proliferates to become neoplastic)

13.Regarding red infarcts = dual blood supply14.pressure is dissipated at = arterioles capillaries15.highest cross sectional area is of = capillaries

16.After 6 day of MI shock occurs d/t = pericardial tamponade17.Highest magnesium stores r present in = bone

18.diabetic pt loss of sensation n vibration n has ulcer in foot mechanism behind =angiopathy and neuropathy

19.turbulence of blood in anemia occur d/t = dec viscosity

20.regargding breast atrophy oin young is caused by = Estrogen n progesterone ( so many explanations for the breast atrophy, but I am always in the favor of estrogen and progesterone both as one causes proliferation of glands and other causes proliferation of stroma, and for atrophy of breast, both glands and stroma should be involved)

21. Fracture of surgical neck of Humerus damage to = Axillary Nerve ( note that deltoid is supplied by axillary and damage to it result in loss of abduction,supraspinatus – by suprascapular nerve = 15 to 30 degree abduction

Deltoid – by axillary nerve = upto 90 degree abduction

● trapezius – by accessory nerve = above 90 degree abduction)

22.. Period where heart is susceptible to fibrillation = At the end of action potential

23.Aortic pressure is lowest during = isovolumic contraction ( about 70mmHg)

24.Labrynthine artery is the branchof = basilar (it arises form AICA but if not in options click Basilir )

25.Lady after cholecystectomy , having microcytic anemia = Blood loss

(questions onward are from cps demo ; try not to mess with the key )

1.Patient has aphasia and facial nerve palsy on same side the artery involved is =middle cerebral artery

2.Regarding l and d sugars = D sugars has oh on right side

3.A patient has non-reactive HbSAg , non-reactive HbeAg , and reactive anti-HBC =transient resolving stage

4.Urine examination of a patient with DM demonstrates ketones bodies,, what’s the mechanism of formation of these ketone bodies = insulin deficiency

5.Which is not a tumor marker = acid phosphatase6.Most sensitive cells to hypoxia = neuron

7.Tyrosine derivative doesn’t include = prolactin8.Organ having least chances of infarction = liver

9.Primary malignant melanoma of choir dost commonly metastasize to = liver10.Which is the site of fusion of binocular vision = visual cortex

11.A newborn baby with hydrocephalus ha swelling in lumbosacral lesion of spine which contain neural tissue in it what’s diagnosis = meningomyelocel 12.Regarding trigeminal ganglion the correct statement is = it’s like a posterior root ganglion of spinal cord

13.The total power of the eye is 59 diopters the main role in maintaining this is played by = anterior surface of cornea

14.In case of six days typhoid the test of choice is = blood test

15.After giving blood transfusion the patient develops hypersensitivity reaction which of reaction is this = type 2 hypersensitivity

16.For diabetic patient the best antihypertensive is = captopril17.Patient with bronchial asthma the best antihypertensive = verapamil18.Mesothelioma is associated with = asbestos

19.Nerve injured in anterior dislocation of shoulder is = axillary nerve20.Hypoglycemia increases = secretin

21.Drug that increases extracellular K moves K out of the cell = angiotensin22.Dark urine after starting ATT = rifampin

23.Thirst is decreased by = baroreceptor efferent

24.A diabetic patient is advised fasting blood glucose level at what value doctor is confusing and needs further evaluation with Glucose tolerance test = 7 mmol/l25.A female has goiter and she feels difficulty in breathing while lying down, what type of goiter she has = retrosternal

26.A patient with enlarged parotid gland with pain in this region, which nerve is carrying pain fibers from parotid gland = auriculotemporal nerve

27.A patient develops lesion in the caudate nucleus , what is the most common clinical feature indicating this lesion = chorea

28.Regarding the vibration sense what is INCORRECT = its receptor is messner corpuscle

29.Defect in the formation of bulbus cordis results in all of the following except =ASD

30.A 40 weeks pregnancy lady has irregular uterine contractions, which drug will be beneficial for this lady = oxytocin

31.A patient with aplastic anemia is given anti lymphocytic globulin, one week later she developed skin rashes. Mechanism for this presentation is = type 3 hypersensitivity

32.Which of the following is the most common cause of osteoporosis except old age =Cushing disease

33.A male patient with the antibody again FSH receptors which one will be lower than normal I this person = sperm count

34.The most common site of fertilization ins human is = fallopian tube35.Structure entering the thoracic inlet is = aorta

36.Needle inserted at the 5th intercostal space on the left side of sternum pierces =intercostal muscle

37.Somatostatin decreases the secretion of which hormone = insulin38.Gastric acid is stimulated by = Gastrin

39.Regarding SA node = automatically generates impulses,

40.During stretch in the skeletal muscle, which of the following change will occur in nuclear bag fibers = they increase impulse generation

41.Pulmonary artery pressure increases in= hypoxia

42.Which of the following structure in the mouth is derived from ectoderm =epithelium of the parotid gland

43.Oxygen level in the blood will decreases in = Hypoxic hypoxia

44.A 6 cm lump in the breast is removed, four lymph nodes and skin were involved, biopsy decided invasive ductal carcinoma , this tumor is called high grade because of = Pleomorphism

45.Diagnostic finding on investigation of metabolic alkalosis is = HCO3 more than 24meq/liter

46.In a patient with sympathetic stimulation what will be the effect on his heart = dec AV Nodal delay

47.What is the nerve supply of the tip of nose = ophthalmic

48.A patient old male has central retinal artery occlusion what could be the most likely cause = embolism

49.A patient with recurrent epistaxis, lab investigations show decrease factor 2, 7 , 9 , 10 , protein c and s , what will be the most likely cause = vitamin k deficiency50.Most common malignancy in person suffering from nuclear blast = hematopoietic51.In turner syndrome the genotype is = XO

52.Vertebreae are derived from= slcerotome

53.Regarding filliform papillae = they are present on the dorsum of the tongue till the tip

54.A patient is unable to extend metacarpophalangeal joint , abduct and extend his thumb, but intact sensation, which nerve is damaged = radial nerve

55.A young patient blood pressure is 150/95 his serum renin level is higher than normal which one is the stimulus for higher renin = increase sympathetic stimulation via renal nerves

56.Which one is the characteristic of IgM = it’s a largest molecule

57.A patient with chronic renal failure needs transplantation. For this reason HLA matching is required , which is the best site for sample for HLA matching = WBC 58.A young child has increase BP in upper limb while decrease BP in lower limb, the pulse is also weak, what is the most probable diagnosis = Post ductal coarctation of aorta

59.Penetrating injury in the 4th left intercostal space just lateral to the sternum will damage, which one of the following structure first = intercostal membrane

60.Best pulmonary function test for asthma is = FEV1

61.Nerve injured in anterior dislocation of shoulder joint is = axillary62.Presene of pancreatic tissue in the gastric mucosa is = choriostoma63.Least common site for ectopic pregnancy is = ovary

64.Least chances of renal stone is associated with = hyperlipidemia65.Which enzyme is released form small intestine = enterokinase

66.A patient has finger like projection on upper eyelid, histopathlogical reports show epithelial cell along the fibrous element what is the most probable diagnosis = papilloma

67.Parotid gland is supplied by = GVE

68.Which one is most strong antioxidant = Glutathion

69.A patient develops paralysis of the left side of the body , after few days his behavior for pain is changed, and eh become angry after touching, where could be the lesion = right thalamus

70.Most early diagnosis of vita min a deficiency = night blindness

71.Patient with bone pain, normal calcium and in alkaline phosphatase = Paget disease

72.which of the following structures is produced in 3rd week of development = Heart tube

73.Antibodies are produced by = Plasma cells

74.Patients come with deviation of tongue to right side. Decreased sense of touch and vibrations, the artery commonly involved in brain is = Anterior Spinal75.Patient with injury to left 8th cervical segment of spinal cord will not show following sign = Dec sense of pain and temperature below the lesion on same side

76.Foetal period starts after which week = 8th

77.Patient with old history of adenocarcinoma of colon operated for polypectomy, on histologic evaluation pathologist labeled it as benign growth with no chances into malignant transformation, it would be = Tubular adenoma

78.Soldier comes with heavy bleeding. The ideal fluid replacement would be = Whole blood for 3 days

79.. A Patient has anemia, hyper-segmented Neutrophils on peripheral blood examination & neurological manifestations. Which type of anemia he is suffering from = Pernicious anemia

80.Heme binds with = Haptoglobin

81.A pregnant lady develops pain few hours after delivery. E.C.G. shows S1, Q3 and T3. What is another investigation most appropriate for the diagnosis of this case =Gallium Scan

82.In a patient diarrhea are corrected after the fasting. Which is most likely type of diarrhea = Osmotic

83.Councilman bodies are formed in the process of = Apoptosis

84.A middle aged male presents with joint pain since one week. His serum Uric Acid level is 156 mg/dl. What is the best investigation for confirmation of the disease =Synovial fluid for polarized light

85.A patient comes to you in ill condition. His blood pH is 7.3 PCO2 is 44 mmHg & HCO3 is 17 meq/L. What diagnosis you are thinking of this patient = Metabolic acidosis

86.During general anesthesia Halothane is given in combination with which of the following drugs = Nitric oxide

87.Most common cause of the pelvic inflammatory disease is = Chlamydia88.Which cranial nerve carry parasympathetic fibers = 3, 7,9 ,10 89.Which is the characteristic feature of rheumatic fever = mitral stenosis

90.Axillary and pectoral group of lymph nodes drains = upper and lateral quadrant91.A 20 weeks pregnant lady presented with BP of 140/95 she complains of vomiting and headache, what is the most probable diagnosis = pregnancy induced hypertension

92.Brucellosis is transmitted by = unpasteurized milk

93.A patient develops sudden breathlessness , hypotension , severe itching and other features of anaphylactic shock ,which drug will be beneficial for this patient failing heart = adrenaline

94.Parasympathetic stimulation causes = opening of intestinal sphincters

95.A patient with trauma of the head developed cerebral edema, which is the cause of inc respiratory rate in this patient = raised ICP

96.Secondary hyperaldosteronism can occur due to = inc renin

97.All of the following mechanisms are involved in development of diabetic gangrene

EXCEPT = Arterioscierosis leading to reduced blood flow to foot

98.Blood brain barrier is formed by = Capillary endothelium

99.On H & E staining a student sees the hallow structure around the nucleus. What it could be = Lysosomes

2000.A middle aged male has non-healing wound for long time in presence of regular dressing; random blood sugar is 130 mg/dl. What could be the cause of delayed healing in this patient = Vascular insufficiency

01.Which of the following is diagnostic of granuloma = Epithliod cells 02.Medial orbitotomey is done in a patient with tumor in orbit. Now he is complaining of numbness at upper part of head up to vertex & medial part but

medial part is intact. Which of the following nerves is damaged = Supraorbital nerve03.In inferior wall Myocardial Infraction, which artery should be blocked = Right marginal artery

03.A young women, complains of Dry mouth & Dry eyes. Which investigation will give clue to her diagnosis = Anti – SS A/B

04.Esophagus histology = Has str. sq in upper 1/3

05.Example of carrier mediated counter transport = Na – glucose transport06.Following is true regarding sterilization = Autoclaving is heating objects at 121 degree C at 15 psi for 3min

07.Pt complains of chest pain for more than 30 min. ECG shows changes in V1-V4. It denotes = Anterior wall MI

08.Depolarization of cell is maintained by = Na influx

09.Spinal cord ends at the level of lower border of = L2 vertebra10.Dry mouth increases all except = Plasma volume

11.Urine Examination of a patient with diabetes demonstrates. Ketone-bodies. What is the mechanism of formation of these ketone-bodies = Insulin deficiency

12.A lady received DES during pregnancy for prevention of the abortion. Her baby will be on the risk of = Clear cell carcinoma of Vagina

13.Prenatal chromosomal abnormality can be detected at 14-18 weeks

14.All of the following mechanisms are involved in development of diabetic gangrene EXCEPT = Arterioscierosis leading to reduced blood flow to foot

15.A patient presents with dislocation of hip after an accident. Which of the following muscle group is involved =Gluteus Maximus + Minimus + Medius

16.No question,  = just chill

17.A patient has history of recurrent abortion. Which of the following enzyme analysis will give help to diagnosis = Progesterone

18.A patient presents with secondary amenorrhea. One year back she has history of P.P.H for that she received six pints of blood what is most probable cause of her menstrual problem = Sheehan’s syndrome

19.A 60 years old women is brought with bleeding per vagina. She is diabetic & hypertensive & one year back she was diagnosed as having carcinoma of breast. What can be most probable diagnosis for this bleeding p/v = Carcinoma of endometrium

20.A Patient is suffering from carcinoma of rectum. He develops pain in the posterior aspect of thing due to involvement of nerve. Which nerve supplies the posterior aspect of thigh & that can be involved in the malignancy of rectum = Sacral nerves21.A semiconscious patient is brought to emergency department. He has history of taking some unknown drug. NaHCO3 reverses the action of drug. Which drug he has most likely taken = Phenobarbital

22.A lady with 26 weeks gestation has uterine height of 24 weeks. On sonography there is no fetus & snowstorm appearance. Which of the following probably associate with it Karyotype-46XX

23.Normal female pelvis has = Oval inlet

24.Ascent of the horse shoe shape kidney is prevented by = inf mesenteric artery25.Which of the following is characteristic of polycystic ovary disease = Inc L.H26.Milk is notoriously deficient in = pantothenic acid

27.Down syndrome Is characterized by= mental retardation and abdominal hernia28.A lady undergoing surgery for cranyophargioma , what you could expect to be present in this lady = Hyperprolactemia

29Regarding nitroglycerine all are true except = increase heart rate

30.A person presented with the loss of visual acuity which artery is most likely affected = posterior cerebral artery

NOTE: Complete Notes are given in Tanveer’s Book, which you can purchase from any Medical Book Shop. 



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