Tanveer Ahmad Important Medical Points for Medical Students

7.Gastroduodenal artery branch of, = right hepatic artery ( actually its branch of common hepatic artery, but if its not in option the click right hepatic artery Ref RJ LAST)

8.Regarding tramadol true is = weak meu agonist9.Ketorolac analgesia most preferable = Non diabetic female undergoing cholecystectomy

10.Radiotherapy most sensitive to = craniopharyngioma(Seminoma >> Glial Glioma >> Craniopharyngioma)

11.Bilateral exopthlmos, antithyroid antibody present = .graves12.Which one drain into left brachiocephalic vein = .inf thyroid (while superior and middle thyroid veins drain into internal jagular veins)

13.A 64 year Old man with posterior cervical lympadenopathy which is firm andmobile. Hb 13-14 hct = 40 wbc 7230 plateletes 250000 no hepato splenomegaly seen biopsy showed numerous small monomophic lyphocytes, ,= .hodgkin lymphcyte predominant(cervical lymph nodes in the Neck is the most Common Site of HL)14.Girl with h/o of gum bleeding, giant platelets , plt count 85k, =bernaud solier ( note, B for Bernaud souleir and B for Big platlets )15.Terminal ileum removed what happens = large amount of water in feces

16.Protein content less in glomerular filtrate occur due to = pore size and negative charge

17A 35 year old man bilateral crepts, on xray chest heart fills completely, mass in rt ventricle , what will b the main cause =


18.True regarding the Flexor Hallucis longus, = tendion can be felt immediately post to medial malleolus

19.Superficial parotid painless tumor, psudopoid growth, contain no capsule on histopatho = pleomorphic adenoma

20.A Very Fat Boy was eating burger & a very Large Bolus stuck after eating ..what will happen next, = secondary persiatlisis will be generated by intrinsic nervous system to remove it

21.When will u do dialysis with GFR Decreases to = 5 %

22.All drugs transported from Placenta by this mechanism = involves carriers ( also note that amino acids and fatty acids uses facilitated diffusion)

23.Regarding pituitary gland true is = .vein drain directly in dural Venous sinuses

24.Patient with fluid loss now show metabolic acidosis e hypokalemia.

most fluid loss will be through: = Colon

25.Anemia wid Blast Cells ins peripheral blood = .Erythroblastosis fetalis

26.Closure of lips involve: or unable to close lips which muscle involved = Orbicularis oris

27.Superior Thyroid artery arise from = External Carotid Artery 28.Incubation period of which disease is longest =Infectious Mononucleosis

29.Age estimation at 5th to 12th week is done through: = crown rump length

30.Shivering center is located in = Posterior hypothalamus

31.A 30 year old woman in azad kashmir was injured mildly in an earthquake that killed many people apart from her distant uncle. She would most probably be in = Situational crisis

32.Which ligament supports odontoid process of axis on atlas = Tranverse ligament

33.Vertebrae has = Longest spine

34.Conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin what will b detected in blood = Fibrinopeptides are detected in Blood

35.Percentage of Plasma out of ECF = 30%

36.Newborn with a Erythroblastosis Fetalis having Blood group B positive what is best for management = B Negative

37.If a person is taking Protein in his diet which will be necessary = Riboflavin (also note that , Thiamine for Carbohydrates in Diet and biotin for fats metabolism)

38.Group of young men bathing n beech next day develop blisters on back shoulder limbs region cause is = Mast cell destruction39.Regarding Renal Column contains= Interlobar artery ( though some friends states, that its collecting duct, not interlobar artery, I am with interlobar artery  #respect)

40.Deep to post digastric and near palatoglossus a structure runs obliquely upwards, = Lingual artery

41.H2O2 found in = peroxisome

42.ICAM and VCAM are for = Leucocyte adhesion43.Breast atrophy in young female is due to = Estrogen and Progesterone

44.Virus in Human causes cancer via = Oncogen (Radiations via Protooncogens)

45.Essential amino acid = Phenylalanine

46.Spread of renal tumor will be through = Renal Vein

47.Retention of C02 = Respiratory failure

48.Regarding Gray matter foot processes = Protoplasmic Astrocytes 49.Cause of global blindness =Chlamydia Trochamatis

50.Which is normal HB = HbA

51.Thalassemia carrier percentage in Pakistan = 5%

52.Surgery for removal of ovary done which is damaged =Internal Iliac Artery

53.In respiratory Alkalosis renal compensation is =NaHC03 excretion

54.During mitosis chromosomes double in which phase = Interphase55. Pain of ovarian tumor is refered to thigh by = Obturator nerve56.Deep inguinal ring is present in = Transversalis fascia

57.17 Ketosteroid in urine seen maximally in =Normal male58.What is the relation of terminal CBD with head of pancreas= Embedded in it

59. After RTA patient becomes unconscious & on CT scan there is a hematoma which is compressing post central gyrus,s which area will be most affected = Sensory area

60.Lutenizing Hormone in males acts on = Leyding cells61.True statement regarding Bone = Circumferential lamella arranged around central canal

62.Regarding Pneumotaxic Centre which statement is true = Inhibits Respiration

63.During exercise increased blood supply to muscles is via = Local metabolites

64.Spindle fibers will decrease discharge of impulses when = Muscle contracts

65.What is the Difference between systemic and pulmonary circulation = Low resistance in pulmonary circulation

67.MOA of steroids in Inflammation is = Inhibiting phospholipase. 68.there is a Trauma to upper limb and pt cant feel sensation in little finger and paralysis of dorsal interossei which nerve is damaged = Ulner Nerve

69.which hormone causes extrahepatic protein catabolism and hepatic protein anabolism = Cortisol

70.Fragile x syndrome. = trinucleotide disorder

71.central chemoreceptors = change in PH of surrounding CSF72.INTERnal carotid relation to external at beginning = Lateral73.HIV female. Which one of the following carcinoma do occure =

cervicaL carcinoma

74.post MI peripheral cyanosis scenerio cause = decrease cardia output

75.type 3 collagen (ehler danlos syndrome) = hypermobility of joints 76.pregnant lady ferrous sulphate taking. Decrease absorption of = Calcium

78.pertusis. = nasopharyngeal and bronchial secretion spread79.allergic reaction with hypotension ( a big scenario is always there, but focus main points and ans is )= .i/m adrenaline

80.transport maximum not saturated scenario = Urate81.carbon laden macrophages = .pneumoconiosis 82.not natural immunity = plasminogen 83.REGARDING CSF= less proteins than plasma.

85.medical ethis. = moral code of conduct of doctr professional life 86.in portal HTN increases pressur in = inf mesenteric vein87.pain transmitted from tip of finger = A delta fibers(sensations

from the tips and lips are transmitted by A beta fibers, but those are not for pain, so dont be confused)

88.defect of neural tube ,which marker increase. =alpha feto protein89.durng c section structure damage causing cramps in lumbar region = ureter

90.true about ureter = cross bifurcation of common carotid

91.aftr paralysis sensitive to pain damage in = thalamus (the so called thalamic pain syndrome, the person becomes sensitive even to normal stimuli)

92.in our society female death apart from obstertical death. = domestic violence

93. obstretical death comon coz in our country = hemorrage 94.true relatd bladdr separatd frm rectum by = donovillier fascia 95.sperm stored aftr ejaculation in … EPIDYDEMUS ( BRS

ANATOMY STATES; “ Seminal vesicles do not store spermatozoa as once thought ; this is done by Epididymus , the ductus deference and its ampulla , if only one is asked prefer epidydemus)

96.a boy with testiculs swelling nd fever viral infection = mumps

97.hemophilia a gen located on = X chromosome

98.middle meningeal artery = passes thru foramin spinosum

99.labia majora vesicles lymph node = medial superficial inguinal node

500.true about ivc = comenses at L5

01.boy age 4 yr 4 days of fever,genraliz lyphadenopahy nd purpuric raash = infectious mononucleosis

02.G6pd deficiency = bite cell

03.suply of midgut form sympathetic = t5 – t12 ( sympathetic innervation , preganglionic from thoracic splachnic nerves t5 to t12 while postganglionic cell bodies ; superior mesenteric ganglion ref;kaplan anatomy)

04.infant with absense of limb cause is = amniotc bands 05.thyroid hormon. increas = Free fatty acids

06.which cozs decres productn of prostaglandin. = corticosteriods07.about metaplasia = one epithelial changes into anothr normal epithelial 08.wafarin toxicityimediately treatd by = FFP ( if FFP andVit-K both are given in one option, click that)

09.mifepriston through = progesteron antagonist ( Miferpristone stimulate uterine contractility ‘ antiprogestin’ also increases prostaglandins by inhinhibiting prostaglandin dehydrogenase)

10.goblet cell absent in = terminal bronchiole 11. preterm delivry = bactrial vaginosis12.hydrocarbon cozs = bronchogenic carcinoma13.adh and oxytocin arise in = hypothalamus

14.Alkaline phosphatase(obstructive jaundice)due to = stone 15.drug causng to inhibit breast ca metastsis to liver = .tamoxiphen 16.patient havng pain on flexng thigh = pelvic appendix

17.viruses causea chang = of protien alteration 18.radiaton caus change of = protooncogen19.Premalignant lesion = Compound nevus.

20.Regarding middle meningeal artery most appropriate….Enters middle cranial fossa through foramen spinosum…

21.Minerals not found in or minerals with low bioavalibility = tubers 22.Medial boundary of ischiorectal fossa. = External anal sphincter (External anal sphincter and sloping fibers of levator ani forms medial border)

23.Boy with h/o trauma to perineal region, swelling in scrotum and ant. Abd wall but didnt go to thigh. Rupture of =Bulbar urethra

24.Turner syndrome = Short stature

25.Pseudo hermaphrodite With 46xy = Adrenogenital synd. 26.Abdominal aorta.= Gives renal arteries at L2

27.Stab to chest…air in pleural space will cause .= Lung to collapse and chest wall to sprung out.

28.Lateral thenar muscles spared but other short muscles of hand paralysed.

Injury = Ulnar

29.axillary artery.relations = Post to pect minor

30.Infection ant. To pretracheal fascia spread to = Ant. Mediastinum 31. Primitve streak mesoderm migrates to anterior abdominal wall and

around cloaca. A rupture of this mesoderm cranially will produce=.ectopic anal opening

32.Systemic fungal infection .drug given. =Amphotericin 33.Vitamin A =. Rhodopsin

34.S2 in comparison to s1 sound = Inc. Frequency ( S1 has inc dullness and duration than S2 )

35.B/l recurrent laryngeal nerve cut. Muscle spared. =Cricothyroids. 36.Superficial cardiac plexus. = Contain both symp n parasympath 37.Gastric ulcer pain. = Greater splanchnic

38.Appendicitis pain radiates to umblicus thru = T10

39. H/o fall bladder incontinence unable to void urine. Spinal segment involved. =. S2s3s4.

40.Neck of fibula fracture. Dorsiflexion n eversion gone. =Common peroneal nerve

41.excessive eversion lig. Ruptured. = Deltoid.

42.Person standing. Venous return from legs mainly facilitated thru. = Contraction of sk. Muscles

43.Mediolateral episiotomy. Structure cut = Bulbospongiosus muscle 44.Regarding withdrawal reflex = Multisynaptic

45.Tension in the muscle is limited by = .golgi tendon organ 46.Alpha adrenergic causes.= Mydriasis

47.Due to stress of surgery inc = ACTH ( ACTH is stress hormone, but if cortisol is there in options, prefer that )

48.In crf unlikely = Hypophosphatemia49.Tcell receptor complex bind with. = MHC

50.Gluteus medius n minimus. = Abduct n medially rotate( whenever u see medial rotation of lower limb, close eye and click minmus and medius if there


51.Ciliary body = Pigment epi of retina is cont. With pigment epi of ciliary body.

52.Isthmus of thyroid lies in front of. = Rings 2 3 4

53.St elevation v4. Artery involved = LAD ( NOTE, that its the most commonly involved artery in CAD)

54.Lt.circumflex artery involved in mi. Old mi with new mi. Area involved.= Lt. Atrium n lt. Ventricle( left circumflex artery supplies both left atrium and ventricle)

55.Most commonly involved heart valve = Mitral valve56.Dka pt. Died. Which fungal inf. = Mucurmycosis57.Stroke death. Autopsy brain. Necrosis. = Liquefactive58.Abdominal angina. Artery involved = SMA

59.50 yrs old. Hypertensive. Severe chest pain radiating to back. Died. On autopsy findings. = Medial necrosis of aorta

60.Median umblical lig is remnant of = Urachus. 61.Premature baby born most common finding is =PDA 62.Pulmonary arteries supply. = Alveoli

63.In adult head of femus blood supply. = Med n lat circumflex femoral art. 64.During lumbar puncture the structure punctured = Lig.flavum

65. Return of blood during exercise from =. Calf muscles67.Testosterone main function = Inc muscle and bone growth 68.Sertoli cells function = androgen binding protein

69.Carb protein fat synthesis hormone = Insulin

70.Most common salivary gland tumor is of which salivary gland =Parotid 71.Cervical ca. Lymph nodes involved = Internal iliac ( if the option <> both internal and external iliac is present, prefer that)

72.Regarding rectum. = Also supplied by median sacral artery.(arises from posterior aspect of abdominal aorta just before bifurcation , descending in the front of sacrum and supply the posterior portion of rectum .Ref; BRS ANATOMY)

73.Regarding anal canal = supplied by both sup n inf rectal arteries. 74.Coumadin (warfarin) question = inc coagulation time

75.Vit k not absorbed. Coagulation factor decreased .= Prothrombin

76. Vit k def. First n foremost coagulation factor depleted. = Protein c ( if protein C is not in options, prefer factor seven )

77.Female presents with dvts . Says she has been taking some kind of pills. = Ocps.

78.10 days fever. Chest pain unrelated to respiration. =Myocardium 79.Breast outer quadrant = Pectoral (anterior ) group

80.Pregnant with jaudice. Went to remote village. To see her parents. Cause = Hep e ( note that ● commenset hpatitis is hepA anywhere, but if ● asked remote area, or epidemic or deadly in pregnancy prefer hep E then )81.Which ca rarely metastasizes = Basal cell carcinoma

82.BCC features. Most likely = Locally malignant

83.which ca spreads to large vessels = Clear cell ca of kidney ( even this carcinoma can reach the heart through inferior vena cava)

84. Cholangicarcinoma is caused by = Clonorchis sinensis.

85.Most common ca of epiphysis = Osteoblastoma ( if Giant cell tumor is

present in options click that )

86.limb growth will be affected if fracture passes thru = Epiphyseal plate 87. Acoustic neuroma. = Vestibular component of CN 8

88.Hypoglossal nerve injured. = Tongue deviated to same side89.Intraarticular disc of tmj involved.. Muscle paralyzed. = Lat.pterygoid 90.Gastric lymphoma ass with = H pylori gastritis

91.Femoral arterial pulse = Mid inguinal point92.Inguinal canal. = Roof Formed by conjoined tendon 93.In. Old age =. Vc decreases

94.Decrease in ESR is due increase in = . Albumin.95.Glycocalyx contains = Carbohydrate moiety.

96. in juxta glomerular nephron, sodium is actively reabsorbed electrically neutral from lumen of nephron in which segment of nephron = Proximal convoluted tubules ie PCT

97.Greatest clearance is of = PAH ( the order is PAH > Dietry potassium > inulin).

98.Rt. Testicular vein enter = Ivc.

99.Tibial nerve severed. Which muscle will still flex the knee joint =Short head of biceps

600.oraganelle with double membrane = Nucleus

Session # threeLight can only shine through a broken vessel.Bear Grylls

1.Sacral plexus anterior division branch = obturator nerve(●Ant division nerves = tibial nerve L4-S3, obturator L2-L4 ,

●Post division nerves = femoral L3-L4 ,common peroneal nerve L-S2 ,superior and inferior gluteal nerves Ref;KAPLAN anatomy)

2.In embryo lung is covered by mesothelium form which layer = Parietal pleura3.Anterior to pancreas is = Lesser sac (note that; head of pancreas lies anterior to inferior vena cava and the neck/ body of pancreas lies anterior to aorta, while superior mesenteric artery is anterior to the uncinate process of pancreas )

4.Most common dislocation of TMJ = Anterior (TM-Joint can dislocate only anteriorly)

5.A 60 years old man develops pain in calf muscles after walking hundred (100) yards pain is due to = Popliteal artery

6.Ulcer 2nd part of duodenum which artery will u ligate = Gastroduodenal artery7.Extraembryonic coelomic membrane = Hypoblast ( Hi yield says epiblast and langman states hypoblast, I follow langman ,#respect)

8- For transfer of radicals from one group to another = transferase ( Note that ; oxidoreductases catalyze oxidation reduction reactions, ie electrons are transferred, while transferase transfers moieties from donor to recipient )

9- For conversion of glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate require = isomerase ( its actually phosphoGlucomutase , but if not present in options, click isomerase )

10.Somatostatin act on beta cells by = paracrine action ( the GI Paracrines are, somatostatin and histamine, they defuse over a short distance to act on target cells ) 11.Gram negative bacteria causes infection of which system = Urinary tract

12.Per mint perfusion of 100g brain tissue per minute = 50-55ml (while brain glucose consumption is 5mg/100gm/min while oxygen consumption is 40ml/min)

13..Drug used to treat Endometriosis = medroxypregesteron acetate (click leuprolide if medroxy is not in options)

14.Toxoplasmosis is = A parasite

15.L1-L2 ends at = Inferior hypogastric plexus

16.detrusor nerve supply = Parasympathetic pelvic nerves while pudendal nerve supplies external sphincter )

17.which bronchus of lung is supplied by eparterial artery = right superior ( Right superior lobar bronchus is eparterial bronchus i-e branch of right main bronchus, it arises above the pulmonary artery due to this reason its name EParterial bronchus and all others arise below the pulmonary artery and are called HYParterial )

18.correlation of two things by which test = student T test ( T for two, first aid )

19.Sarcoma is differentiated from carcinoma = tissue of origin ( if this option is not present, prefer aggressiveness)

20.Narrowest point in pediatric airway = cricoid

21. If thalamus gets damaged, which is not affected = sense of olfaction 22.Superior colliculus receives which sensation = visual (Memorize as , the superior

colliculus is above and eyes are above , while inferior colliculus is for auditory system and ear are lower to eyes)

23.Posterior communicating artery = passes above the occulomotor & connects ICA and PCA

24.Which muscle gets paralyzed/damaged in temporomandibular joint dislocation =lateral pterygoid

25.1st branch of abdominal aorta = inferior phrenic artery

26.dilatation of aortic arch will compress = left bronchus

27.axillary vein is formed by = basilic vein and vena commitantes of brachial artery (these form axillary vein at the lower border of teres major muscle)

28.injury to lateral hypothalamus will = decreases hunger

29.in open laparotomy, surgeon recognizes left kidney by = anterior relation with stomach,pancrease,descending colon,spleen,jejunum

30.linear growth pf bone is affected if following structure is fractured = epiphyseal plate

40.beta endorphins = hypothalamus

41.typical scenario of sickel cell anemia with abdominal pain jaundice = HbSS

42.a tall young girl(child) with history of secretion from breast.on microscospy of anterior pituitary, which cells are abundant = eosinophilic (GH and Prolactin are acidophiles ie chromophils and take eosinophilic dye ; Rest are basophils i-e cells other than these two varieties )

43.which toxin is responsible for scarlet fever = erythrogenic toxin

44.highest sodium channel concentration = node of ranveir

45.Antibody receptors are = hypervariable regions of H and L chains

46.Dicumarol side effect = inc bleeding time

47.mode of action of cephalosporin = inhibit transpeptidase

48.lithium is a toxic antipsychotic. when should it be stopped = coarse tremors ( katzung states ; lithium causes Fine tremors in therapeutic dose and coarse tremors in toxic dose)49.Thyroid follicles that release hormone are derived from = Endoderm

50.steady pressure is detected by = ruffinis receptors

51.Best indicator of venous return = end diastolic volume

52.erythropoietin secretion is inhibited by = theophylline

53. Primigravida taking iron tablets, lots of fresh vegetables and juices .what deficiency she is at risk of developing = calcium ( iron reduces the absorption of calcium and hence may cause its deficiency, if Ca is not in options click vit B12, but the deficiency of vit B12 takes time as its stores lasts longer ; note that if a person is taking both calcium and iron tablets he/she is advised to take iron at night and calcium in the morning to avoid nutrients


54.child brought by mother,suffering from diarrhea.on examination,rectal prolapsed was found =. trichuria trichuris ( A hint is most of the time given that worm with small anterior end )

55.what is more/high in venous blood as compare to arterial blood = PCV ( due to the chloride shift phenomenon in venous blood, water enters into the red blood cells, and cell swells, resulting in increased packed cell volume )

56.in which condition atrial repolarization is shown on ECGthird degree complete heart block

57.child with hypocalcemia(or tetany),having some cardiac problems and viral infections =22q-11 microdeletion (this is a scenario of DIGEORGE SYNDROME a Developmental failure of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, due to 22q11 microdeletion . Presents with T-cell deficiency due to lack of thymus and hypocalcemia due to lack of parathyroids anda abnormalities of heart ,great vessels, and face)

58.which valves are most commonly involved in rheumatic heart diseasemitral and aortic valves

59.which is more in dialyzing fluid as compare to plasma = glucose (composition of dialyzing fluid;

●Glucose & HCO3 are more than plasma, if both asked prefer glucose ●Na , K & Cl less than plasma

●Mg & Ca equal to plasma

●urea , creatinine, sulphate and zero,)

60.Hematocrit = rbcs+wbcs+platelets ( this ans is from Ganong BCQs while according to many others and even Dorland, hematocrit is just RBC,s and the buffy coat is formed by platlets and wbcs, I follow ganong BCQ  #respect)

61.which antiemetic is preffered in pts of chemotherapy = odansterone

62.ranitidine is different from cemitidine as = it has less CNS toxicity

63.Lower limit of subarachnoid = S2

64.In spermiogenesis acrosome reaction by = lysosomes ( if asked , acrosome is formed by

??? then click Golgi )

65.Receptor action via Phospholipase C = Vasopressin induced smooth muscle contraction66.intertesticular temp less than rectal temp = 1-2c

67.Hb is 10, O2 saturation 90% ( convert 90% to 0.9 ), PaO2 = 60 , calculate O2 content = 13 ans (see solution below)

Formula for oxygen content =(Hb g/dL ×1.34) × SaO2 + PaO2×0.003 oxygen content = (10 × 1.34) × 90% + 60 × 0.003

oxygen content = 13.4 × 0.9 + 0.18 oxygen content = 12.06 + 0.18 oxygen content = 12.24 i.e 13

68.Buccopharyngeal Membrane = Stomodium from Foregut (note that ; if asked Buccopharyngeal fascia then pharynx from foregut )

69.Absolute contraindication of Propofol is = Hypersensitivity

70. Lung carcinoma fungiform growth. = Squamous cell carcinoma

71.sugar in urine will be detected if its concentration in blood becomes = 180mg (at plasma concentration less than 250 mg /dl all the filtered glucose is reabsorbed and excretion is zero, the plasma concentration at which glucose first appears in urine is approximately 250mg/dl Ref;BRS Physiology, while chatterje states, Renal threshold for glucose is 180, I follow 180  #respect)

72.Esophagus = Passes through right crus of diaphragm

73.Aneurysm of aorta at diaphragmatic hiatus compresses = azygous vein and thoracic duct

74.Antacid decreasing gastric motility = Aluminum hydroxide(note that, aluminium causes constipation while Mg causes diarrhea )

75.Vessel lying close to LAD , prone to injury during surgery is = great cardiac vein

76.Ascending reticular formation located in = floor of aqueduct of sylvius

77.Patient taking propranolol develops increased PR interval . what is the cause = Drug induced 1st degree heart block

78.Osmolarity of Human plasma = Similar to 0.9 % N/S

79.post ganglionic sympathetic fibers are present in = all spinal nerves ( sympathetic outflow is from thoracolambar region, but post ganglionic fibers in all spinal nerves )

80.For sodium neutralization = Cl ( while HCO3 for K neutraliztion)

81.That melatonin = secretion inc in dark (Pineal gland has a midline location above the quadrigeminal plate in the midbrain and is Site for melatonin production . Superior cervical sympathetic ganglia stimulates receptors on pinealocytes causes release of melatonin into spinal fluid and blood . Melatonin is Important in sleep/moods and circadian rhythms Released at night. Ref Goljan, plz dont cofuse it with melanin)

82.Smoking is associated with = thromboangiitis obliterans ( it is also called BUERGER disease)

83.which of these is not synthesized by post ganglionic sympathetic fibers = L.Dopa

84.Bromocriptine reversed amenorrhea mechanism of action is = it acts as dopamine agonist

85.not a part of natural immunity = plasminogen

86.Factor 8 is synthesized by = Endothelial cells

87.what is the landmark for pudendal nerve block = ischial spine

88.Pt with HTN , LVH , Creatinine 0.8 , Urea inc, BSF 88mg% with urinary sugar ++ , Na 140 , K 2.5. Cause of HTN = Hyperaldosteronism ( the function of aldosterone is to reabsorb sodium and excrete hydrogen and potassium, thats why in hyperaldosteronism, K is depleted and there is alkalosis, and Sodium level won,t fall because water is absorbed along with Na)

89.Which structure is embeded in temporal lobe = insula90.Ureteric bud is formed as a part of = Mesonephric duct91.Coccygeal ligament start at = L1

92. 40 years Old man from Sibi Baluchistan with fever and Lymphadenopathy with the H/O of sleeping on floor and often bite by flies. On Peripheral blood film Unicellular structure can be seen. Diagnosis is = Kalazar

93.Irreversible step in Glycolysis = Glucose to Fructose-6-Phosphate94.Intracranial and extracranial veins are joined by = Emissary Veins

95.Situation of SA node = Upper portion of Sulcus terminalis ( but BRS anatomy states ; SA node is a small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that lies in the myocardium at the upper end of the crista terminalis near the opening of the svc in the right atrium.)96.Thromocytopenia in Children due to Acute Viral infection is becausw of = Antibodies against platelets

97.Esophagous narrowest at = Cricopharyngus

98.Upper and lower limits of cerebral blood flow autoregulation = 50-150ml/min(The ranges mentioned by Francis physiology is 60 to 160 which is almost near to 50 to 150) 99.In some children Dorsalis pedis Artery is missing congenitally. Then dorsum of foot will be supplied by which artery = Peroneal artery

700.Itching will stimulate .= C fibers

01.A Child got blow at elbow and elbow joint displaced. And loss of sensation over little finger. Structure involved = Ulnar collateral ligament

02.-A 35 years old man die suddenly. Autopsy finding nill. Toxicology shows cocaine and its metabolite in blood. Cause of death = Contraction band

03.Ganglion found at T7 vertebra = Thoracocervical04.Edrophonium most common adverse effect = Nausea

05.Damage to first lumbar vertebra will lead to = . Conus Medullaris Syndrome06.In feamle neck of bladder lie = Lie above urogenital diaphragm

07. Mechanoreceptors of Warm = Long receptive field08.Cuneatus and Gracillis damage will result in = Asterognosia09.Articular surface has which cartilage = Hyaline

10.Elastic cartilage is found at = Epiglottis

11.Preganglionic Presympathetic fibers = B type ( note that post ganglionic are C fiber and if asked what are pure autonomic fibers again click B fibers, plz dont confuse B fibers with Beta fibers )

12.PICA damage, blood supply of which part will be affected = dorslateral of medulla13.Chromatid align at equatorial plate = Metaphase( also chromosal study is carried out in metaphase, and if asked replication of any organelle click interphase)

14.Which Cells have telomerase = Germ cells

15.Perineal area innervation was asked S2-416.Most drugs are metablized in = Liver

17.Death due Clostridium botilinum = Paralysis of respiratory muscle

18. True about Supernumary cervical Rib = Compress brachial plexus and subclavian vessels

19.A female with blurred vision etc case of Multiple Sclerosis = Demyelination of neurons20.Node of Ranvier = Lack of Myelin sheath

21. tuberculin test (Negative) = Taking immunosuppressive drugs

22.Bupivacain first sign of over doze = ringingin ears (if asked about serious adverse effect, prefer arrythmias)

23.A child suffering from 104F fever, and has been on anti malarials .His lfts are deranged wd inc unconjugated bilirubin.What is the most probable diagnosis = blackwaterfeve( if in the ques , high temperature is not mentioned then prefer G6PD deficiency )

24.about sertoli cells = release androgen inhibiting factor( so called inhibin)

25.Baby Diper gets yellow due to = biliary atreasia (if biliary atreasia is not in options , prefer Gilbert then)

26.Medial quadrant of breast drain into = Internal thoracic nodes

27.Superior sagittal sinus pressure in standing position = – 10 i-e minus ten “ (Ganong physiology)

28.Aspiration of hydrocele,needle does not pierce = tunica albugenia29.shoulder pain reffered from pleura = c3,c4,c5

30.which stucture passes through esophageal hiatus = Vagus trunk (right vagus)

31.adrenocortical deficiency causes = Hyponatremia ( the job of mineralocorticoids is to reabsorb sodium, thas how the deficiency of mineralocorticoids may result in hyponatremia )

32.malarial parasite transfer in which form in man = Sporozite

33. Most common congenital anomaly of head and neck = Cleft plate34.most commonly fructure of bone after 60 yrs = Neck of femure35.Most common Inheritance pattern = Multifactorial

36.fructure humate bone = Ulnar nerve (A fall on the outstretched hand may fracture the hook of hemate which may damage the ulnar nerve as it passes into the hand)

37. ivu kidney more prominent = Calyces38.spinal cord ends at = lower border of L1

39.epidural space contains. = Venous plexues

40.Regarding cephalic vein = Lie between deltoid and pectoralis major muscle

41. A 10 yrx boy repeated visits to opd with pallor frontal bossy = thalasemia major42.renal vein lies posterior to = Superior mesenteric vein

43..lumber triangle anteriorly bound by posterior border of = Serratus anterior

44.Mononucleosis. Stucture most likely to be damaged even on minor trauma = spleen45.Barium swallow Feathery appearance in left abdomen = Jejunum

46.Damage to middle cranial fossa. No lacrimation. Damage to = Ciliary ganglion47.Which of the following is not isotonic to plasma = 5% D/w( 5% dextrose water is almost same as pure water)

48.Highest Pco2 in = Pulmonary artery49.Somatostatin acts on beta islet cells = Paracrine50.Rabbit disease = tularemia

51.Nerve asked, loss of sensation in lower teeth, chin and lower lip = Inferior Alveolar nerve

52.Retromandibular vein is formed by junction of Maxillary vein and = Superficial temporal vein

53.Alpha-2-agonist used in ICU for sedation = Dexmedetomidine ( Dexmedetomidine isalpha-2-agonist like clonidine and is most often used in ICU setting for light to moderate sedation, the reason to prefer is , it has analgesic and hypnotic properties and is not associated with significant respiratory depression )

54.1st lumbrical = attaches to radial side of index finger ( Details; The first lumbrical of the hand arises from the anteriolateral surface( ie radial side ) of the tendon of flexor digotrum profundus to the index finger)

55.Chondrocyte change into osteocyte = thyroxin

56.Muscle damage in difficult delivery = levator ani Muscle

57.Sperm will called abnormal <20 million,,30% motile = Less than 20 million per ml is oligospermia

58.bulbourethral gland content of = deep perineal pouch ( Cowper,s glands also called the bulbourethral glands (in the male only) are the content of deep perineal pouch while the greater vestibular also called bartholin glands are located in superfascial perinial pouch in females)

59.Which step z common in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate tofructose-6-phosphate

60.Deep part of parotid fascia forms = Stylomandibular ligament ( the thin deep lamina of parotid capsule ie the investing layer of deep cervical fascia , thickens to form stylomandibular ligament )

61.whiplash injury, c5 c6 injury = flexion of elbow ( flexion of fore-arm )

62.medical ethics = conduct of doctor profession63.burkit lymphoma in aids = EBV

64.GABA destroyed n substantia nigra = Parkinson65..EDV=160. Heart rate= 70, CO2 = 5.6L solution;

Ejection Fraction = SV/EDV & CO = HR × SV


first convert 5.6 L to ml ie ( 5.6 × 1000 = 5600 ml) then calculate SV = 5600/70 = 80


EJECTION FRACTION = 80/160 = 0.5 ans

67.4ml of 4% Lidocaine solution contains how much lidocaine ? Solution ;

4% means 4 gram in 100 ml convert 4 grams into miligrams 4 ×1000 = 4000 mg

if 100 ml contains 4000 mg then 1 ml contains X mg X =4000/100 = 40 mg

and 4% contains = 40 ×4 = 160 ans

68.Question = 0.85% Nacl Solution contains how much NaCl ??Solution ;

0.85 % means 0.85 gram in 100ml

now convert gram into mg ie 0.85 × 1000 = 850 mg so 0.85% NaCl solution contains = 850 mg /100 ml

69.Regarding Pseudoypoparathyroidism = Hypocalcemia ( Pseudohypoparathyroidism Autosomal dominant disease ; End-organresistance to PTH (includes its ability to synthesize 1-α-hydroxylase in the proximal tubule) Mental retardation, basal ganglia

calcification, short fourth and fifth metacarpals (knuckle-knuckle-dimple-dimple sign). Hypocalcemia, normal to PTH, normal 25-(OH)D, 1,25-(OH)2D; serum calcium,serumphosphorus.)

70.Cholangiocarcinoma caused by = Cholonorchis Sinensis

71.Farmer with migratory lesion on foot = Cutaneous Larva migran ( look at , both the ques ie migratory lesion and ans ie larva migrans , share the same word ie migran )

72.Ligament that prevents ant dislocation of femure on tibia = Post cruciate

72.Scrotum drains to = Superficial Inguinal Nodes

73.True about Thoracic duct, drains into = At Confluence of left Subclavian and left Jugular

74.About Posterior Triangle of Neck what is true = Contains subclavian , three trunks of brachial plexus

75.Nerve loss in urogenital triangle which nerve involved = Pudendal Nerve

76.About Quadrate lobe, true is = Drains by left hepatic duct ( quadrate lobe though structurally part of right lobe, but functionally part of left lobe even arterial and venous etc are with left )

77.Isoniazid causes side effects which can be prevented by taking which vitamin =Pyridoxine

78.About Trichomonas vaginalis what is correct = Is sexually transmitted

79.Athetosis is due to defect in = Globus pallidus

80.Main class associated wid antigen presenting cells = MHC2

81.Diabetic pt came to ER insulin given what change will happen in blood = increased pH( as its Ketoacidosis so u have to change acidosis ie PH )

82.If circumflex branch of left coronary artery is blocked which area will be effected = Posterior surface of left ventricle

83.Potassium will be lost mostly fr0m which segment following dietary irregularities = distal tubule

84.Main diagnostic feature of DIC = presence of D dimers (D for DIC, D for D-dimers)

85.CO poisoning,methemoglobulinemia,anemia dont result in hyperpnoea = this is because Po2 remains normal

(Anemia- Pa02, Sa02 – Normal ;MethHB and CO Poisoning – Pa02 – Normal, Sa02 DECREASED- Ref Edward F Goljan)

86.Burkitt lymphoma cause is = EBV ( EBV = it also causes infectious monoNucleosus, in which B CELLS are affected, but the ABNORMAL LARGE CELLS ARE T-CELLS , so if asked affected click B- CELLS )

87.Bitemporal hemiopnea = Pituitary Adenoma

88.Subdural hematoma due to = leakage of cerebral vein (while extradural is due to Middle meningeal Artery )

89.Penetrating injury in 4th left intercostal space just lateral to sternum will damage which of following structure first = intercostal membrane damage (this is an imp question, but if 5th space is asked, then CLICK intercostal MUSCLE)

90.young patient with history of taking some drug with anemia, HB is 8 ,WBC 90000 and platelet is 240000 and PERIPHERAL blood shows IMMUTURE CELLS = ALL

91.NON LETHAL MI what happen within first day = Cardiac arrhythmias92.pnemothorax – lung collapse inwards and chest outward ( remember that naturally the LUNG wants to be collapsed and chest wall want to sprang outward, so if pneumothorax occurs, lung follows its natural tendency, ie it collapses and wall sprang outward)

93.Hx of chest infection 10 days back. otherwise she is fine presented with petechie and ecchymosis. Investigation= platelets count

94.posterior relation of left kidney is = diaphragm

95.Malignant tumour mesenchymal in origin = Sarcoma

96 .during inspiration = greater decrease in intrapleral pressure than alvelor pressure97.young girl HB 5,MCV LOW ,MHCH LOW,and abnormal morphology of RBCS

,investigition = Hb electrophoresis

98. Most suitable NSAID during Lactation = Ibuprofen

99- pt with Diabetic ketoacidosis pt managed Bt died. Most likely infection is = mucur

800Dead organisms in vaccine = WHOOPING COUGH

01. Dysphagia due to liquids only = Neuromuscular blockade02. Post 1/3 of the tongue supplied by = Cranial nerve 9

03. H2O2 found in = Peroxisome

04.. Fecal incontinence after trauma damge to = External anal sphincter05. Poliomyelitis = Anterior horn cell defect

06. Regarding P Value = Checks probability P for P VALUE and P for Probability ) 07. Retention of C02 = Respiratory failure type 2 ( Type 1 faliure is due to oxygenation problem , and any pathology that fills lung with fluid causes type 1 eg, pleural effusion, pneumonia etc, type2 is due to co2 retension and any pathology that causes hypoventellation causes type 2 failure eg, morphine over dose, muscles paralysis etc )08. Lymph drainage of Testes = Paraaortic LN

09.Surgery for removal of ovary done which is damaged = Internal Iliac Artery

10.In respiratory Alkalosis renal compensation is = NaHC03 excretion

11.Gardner working in garden. developed chest pain, x\ray showed mass in rt lower lob = Aspergillosus

12.Rheumatic fever (scenario) type of hypersensitivity = Type II

13.In Scarlet fever toxin type = Erythrogenic

14.A male sexually active without fever and urethral discharge organism found =Chlamydia trachomatis

15.The drug that causes hyperurecemia = Pyrazinamide

16.Surgeons injects dye during surgery of the liver through =Ligamentum Teres

17.Polycythemia characteristic feature; increase in = Red cell mass

18.. A female patient with low Hb and increased reticulocytes + Coombs test positive =Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

19.Patient with miosis and cannot gets his pupils widened even in dark, lesion of = Sympathetic trunk

20.Patient with dry eyes which ganglion involved – Pterygopalatine

21.A tall man in a circus started with chest pain. Has also dislocated lens in history, chest pain due to = Dissecting aorta( another question frequently asked about dissecting aortic aneurysm and the ans is CYSTIC MEDIAL NECROSIS)

22.Damage to dorsal column medial leminiscus pathway causes = Sensory ataxia

23.Nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus damage cause = Astereognosia

24.A patient with FEV1/FVC decreased with FEV1 decreased more, dyspnea (emphysema case). The activity of neutrophil elastase is due to = Nicotine

25.A child with arthritis, mucosal ulcers, uveitis and genital lesions = Behcets disease

26.Low complement system seen in = SLE

27.Pulmonary flow of blood in liters/min = 5 liters

28.In SIADH = Hyponatremia (decreased osmolarity)

29.Alpha motor neurons = Myelinated

30.Potassium secretion decreased via = Aldosteron antagonistsv(Spironolactone)

31.Costocervical trunk = 2nd part of subclavian artery

32.A man goes to a high altitude 02 delivery to tissues is maintained by = Hb conc is increased

33.A 52 year old man underwent coronary artery bypass graft two weeks ago and now presents with purpuric patches on skin. On labs his PT and aPTT were normal. Following Is true = Drug induced thrombocytopenia

34.Regarding normal heart = Right ventricle pressure 25/10 mmHg

35.Maximum absorption by renal tubules = Glucose

36.Regarding Bain Bridge Reflex = Increases HR

37.Ectopic thyroid hormone is produced by = Squ carcinoma larynx

38.Lesion above the sacral region; effect on bladder = spastic bladder( if spastic bladder not in option , click neurogenic bladder, note that neurogenic bladder is the term used for both spastic and atonic bladder )

39.Sickle cell anemia defect in = Beta globin

40.Deep to post digastric and near palatoglossus a structure runs obliquely upwards = Lingual artery

41.Loss of abduction and adduction of fingers and adduction of thumb with intact skin sensations involves = Deep branch of ulnar

42.A patient on MAO inhibitors, in order to avoid hypertension you would advise not to take = Coffee

43.Middle 1/3rd of oesophagus supplied by = Descending thoracic aorta

44.Follicular cells of thyroid derived from = Endoderm

45.Organophosphates = Irreversibly binds to organophosphates

46.A tumor of pituitary gland compressing anteriorly to a structure will cause problem in= Optic nerve

47.A postpartum lady with heavy bleeding due to uterine atony, drug you would use = Ergometrine

48.Parietal cells = Copious eosinophilic cytoplasm and central nucleus

49.Patient with prolonged PR interval and on beta blocker from long time cause = Drug induced 1st degree heart block

50.Lymphatic vessels related to = Cystic hygroma

51.IgA nephropathy on histology = Mesangeal deposit

52.Increased in resistance to flow = Viscosity

53.Chorea and athetosis are the features of = Basal ganglia complex

54.Femoral artery position to femoral vein below the inguinal ligament, femoral artery is = Lateral

55.About spermiogenesis = Spermatids are converted to spermatozoa

56.Family history positive, patient with recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis investigation for diagnosis = Sweat Chloride test.

57.Myxomas most common location = Left Atrium

58.diabetic patient present with gangrenous foot cause is = angiopathy+neuropathy59.in late pregnancy placenta consist of = Synctiotrophoblast+fetal endothelium60.Person not able to open mouth = Lateral pterygoid ( speak lateral pterygoid and ur mouth remains open all the way along, thats how its memorzed ie its function is to keep mouth open)

61.Estrogen will not inc the risk ov following = carcinoma ovary62.Recurrent infections, sinusitis, situs inversus = Kartegnars syndrome.

63.Fracture of surgical neck of Humerus damage to = Axillary Nerve

64.Inversion of foot by which muscle = Tibialis Posterior

65.Lateral foot dermatome = S1

66.Giant Cell Tumors histo finding = Soap Bubble appearance

67.Young adult with raised ALP, jaundice and decreased Hb Scenario = Pigment Stones

68.Regarding Lymph drainage of breast except = Inferior Phrenic Nodes

69.Closure of lips involve: or unable to close lips which muscle involved = Orbicularis oris

70.Superior Thyroid artery arise from = External Carotid Artery

71.Incubation period of which disease is longest = Infectious mononucleosis ( look at its lengthy name , so associate with long incubation period)

72.Chronic Fungal infection with rhinosinusitis causing medial erosion and granulomas = Aspergillus

73.Which of following has highest chances of dev eloping endometrial cancer = Complex hyperplasia with atypai

74.Regarding CSF = Formed 500ml/day ( another question is sometimes there in paper regarding CSF and the answer is Cushion effect)

75.Age estimation at fifth to 12th week is done through = Crown rump length

76.Otic ganglion is between mandibular nerve and tensor tympani. It’s superior border is formed by = Foramen ovale

77.A young boy with inc appetite weight gain and sleep problems. On examination he is having genitals hypoplasia = Craniopharyngioma

78.Sensory supply of uterus passes through which ligamen = Broad ligament

79.Highest number of alpha resceptors are present in = proximal urethra followed by prostati urethra

80.A needle when inserted 2cm below and lateral to pubic tubercle will be closely related to on = Obturator nerve

81.Most common position of appendix = Retrocecal

82. Sensations from tip of fingers by = beta fibers (from the tips and lips Sensations are by BETA fibers)

83.Shivering center is located in = Posterior hypothalamus ( note that posterior hypothalamus is origin of sympathetic nervous system and that cause shivering )

84.Which tumor involves extension to nerve sheath = Carcinoma expleomorphic adenoma( associate the word EX, in both EXtension and EXpleomorphic)

85.While a surgery on submandibular gland which has more chances of injury = Facial nerve (Actually its the marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve, so any one of them may be asked in options)

86.Which one combination is correct = Morphine reduces apnoeic threshold

87.year old young man has heaviness in his scrotum for six months. On examination a solid 5cm mass is palpated. On labs his alpha feto protein level was 81ng/ml while bHCG level was 15 IU/l. Same side orchiectomy was done and Which of following could be the cause = Embryonal carcinoma

89.Which ligament supports odontoid process of axis on atlas = Tranverse ligament

90.Medial geniculate body = Fibers ascend to thalamocortical areas

91.C7 Vertebrae has = Longest spine

92.Direct Inguinal Hernia = Medial to epigastric Artery ( ie in kaselaabch triangle)

93.A man during fasting his urine become concentrated because of = ADH secretion

94. If a person is taking Protein in his diet which will be necessary = Riboflavin

95.Scenario bif on Marfans wid mitral valve prolapse died and on autopsy is prolapse this was due to defect in = Fibrillin ( F for Fibrillin and F for marFan)

96.Obstruction to RCA after giving Marginal branch will affect = AV Node (high repeat)

97.Aortic valve closure outsets = Isovlumic Relaxation ( Remember that during isovol relaxations S2 is produced while during isoVol contraction S1 is produced)

98.High Cardiac Output failure in= Beri Beri

99.Regarding indication of furosemide = Acute pulmonary edema

900. A patient was brought to the hospital after a roadside accident. On examination he was pale with low blood pressure and fracture of left 10th rib. Which organ is most likely to be Injured = Spleen ( in the scenarios of RTA and viscera damage, look for 10th rib and click the spleen )

Session # four; Too much information coming to my brain, too much information driving me insane. Conrad Fischer 

01. Bupivacaine. Overdose, adverse effect = Ventricular arrhythmia( while initial symptom of bupivacaine toxicity is ringing in the ears, as arrhythmia isn’t symptom)

02. Pt. Anesthetized heat will not produce due to = Loss of muscle tone

03. 60 percent ventricle fill during = Rapid inflow ( there is another stem and don’t confuse that with this one, which asks, in which stage ventricals are filled maximally and ans is atrial systole, bcz during atrial systeole ventricles are already filled and atrial systole just add small amount of blood)

04. Regarding post. Comm artery. = Connects PCA to ICA ABOVE occulomotor nerve05. Dorsal vagal nuclei present in. = Medulla

06. Which hormone causes uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation with increase heat production = Thyroid hormones

07. Patient had previous episodes of diplopia and dizziness now acutely comatose reason = Basilar artery thrombosis

08. Child has episodes of bleeding and ecchymosis i guess since birth hb 9.8 mg/dl nd platelets count was normal 180 x 10^3 BT prolong = .,platelet functional defect

09.Patient given warfarin on second day had large ecchymosis on thigh = Protein cdef ( warfarin not only dec synthesis of factors 2 , 7, 9 and 10 but also dec protein c and s, and protien C AND S are antithrombotics/anticoagulants, that’s why initially warfarin can show procoaglant effect )

10.Csf has low conc of which of the following than plasma… = .proteins

11.Corona radiata forms from. = Granulosa

12.Surgery grade 3 tumor = 50 to 75 % cells undifferentiated

13.Muscle attached to bone by = Tendon

14.treponyma pallidum for initial Diagnosis sample can be taken form.= Genital sore scrapping

15.Pt with jaundice hepatosplenomegaly which test to be Performed. =Antimitochondrial antibodies

16.1 litre blood loss quest =. Inc venous tone

17.While playing cricket got abrasions. Immediate mechanism = Vasoconstriction

18.Tumor suppressor gene = P53

19.Mc cause of fatty liver in our population = protein malnutrition ( if this is not present in options, prefer Fat intake/obesity , note that hep B&C don’t cause fatty liver, and don’t confuse NASH ie non-alcohlic-steato-hepatatis with fatty liver as it’s a condition associated with hepC not caused by Hep C )

20.Ecf volume can be increased by = Hypertonic saline (hypertonic saline inc ECF volume and osmo , and also sucks the fluid from ICF compartment futher increasing ECF volume )

21.Most radiosensitive tumor = Seminoma (after seminoma the most radiosensitive tumors are Glial glioma and followed by craniopharyngioma)

22.Alveolar surface dry due to = Negative interstitial pressure

23.Pseudomonas aureginosa. = Endotoxin

24.Corynebacterium diphtheria lethal effect on = Heart

25.Benign tumor = Leiomyoma

26.Histoplasmosis effect on = Reticuloendothelial sys.

27..Bioavailability is not affected by = Sex/gender

28..Regarding morphine use = Terminal cancer patient

29..Heparin prevent which stage of coagulation = Propagation of thrombus

30..upper motor neuron lesion = Increase muscle tone ( as a rule, in umn lesions everything goes up , so as the muscle tone )

31..passes through cavernous sinus =. Abducence nerve ie CN6

32..young girl, used a drug for back ache, platelets were in normal range,wbc 70000,neutropenia, hb was 9, small immature cell in peripheral film =.acute leukemia

33..in juxta glomerular nephron, sodium is actively reabsorbed electrically neutral from lumen of nephron in which segment of nephron = Proximal convoluted tubules ie PCT

34..about follicular ca of thyroid = Vascular invasion35..transplanted auto graft survives most in = Agamaglobinemia36..increase in creatinine,,source = Skeletal muscle

37..chronic hepatitis histology = Fibrosis38..strongest layer of bowl is = Sub mucosa

39..Weight bearing line in pelvis pass thru = .ischial tuberosity

40..Which of the following is ectoparasite.= Lice

41..Farmer organophosphate poisoning what should be given = Pralidoxime ( if pralidoxime is not in options , prefer atropine then )

42..All preganglionic neurotransmitter =. Acetylcholine (note that all preganglionic autonomic fibers are B-FIBERS, neurotransmitter is ACETYL CHOLINE & receptors are NICOTINC receptors )

43..Sweat gland by = .sympathetic ( sweat glands are supplied by sympathetic fibers but the neurotransmitter is acetyl choline not nor epinephrine)

44.Rt upper n lower limb paralysis. Angle of mouth deviates to left while talking. =Internal capsule ( if the limb paralysis & facial paralysis are on the same side ie right , then lesion is in internal capsule as in this case, note that don’t confuse the left deviation of mouth as left sided paralysis, cz it still indicates right side paralysis of facial muscles as right are weak and left muscles pull mouth towards them, avoid this tricky point; secondly if limbs paralysis on one side ie right and face on other ie

left then lesion will be in pons, third point is, if the scenario qualifies for pons and there is ATAXIA mentioned in stem then click Ponto-cerebellar junction)45..sulfur containing aminoacid = Cystine

46.. Truncal vagotomy = Dec acid secretion and pepsin

47.Insulin is inhibited by = B.blockers

48.Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis = Terminal cancer ( it may also be caused by conditions like SLE, but prefer neoplasm if present in options )

49..Chloride shift in rbc is due to which protein = Band 3

50.PPD is false negative in = Immunosuppressant

51.Following lymphoid organ receive lymph from subscapular sinus = . Lymph node

52.Adrenalecctomy taste preferences = Nacl (Salt)

53.patient with lung abscess develops meningitis, causative organism. =Staphylococcus ( any abscess in the lung is due to staph aurius until proved otherwise, according to oxford medicine, and after lung abscess meningitis is due to staph aurius , according to kaplan medicine )

54.Low dose estrogen pill causes. = Hepatic adenoma (look at the tricky point low dose, if its not there, click thromboembolism)

55.Human is an intermediate host of = Hydatid cyst

56.How can doctor provide better management to patient =. By better communication

57.EEG of a patient shows = Increase frequency of waves in active mind than in deep sleep

58...sodium regulation is through = osmoreceptors

59..Teratogen effect in which embryonic age =. 2 to 8 wks ( the most susceptible period to teratogens is 3 to 8 weeks when there is organogenesis, but if this is not in options, click the one near to it)

60..Which form of thyroxin is an active form = Unbound form

61..Beta receptor stimulation causes =. Increase heart rate

62..Drug interaction occur = Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokindetic Both

63..Parasympathetic effect on Heart =. Increase PR interval

64..DIC activated by = Tissue thromboplastin

65..which of the following augment the effect of immune system = Complement System

66.Regarding occupational diseases increase risk of problems with exposure to =asbestos

67.Regarding biceps brachi = Arises from supraglenoid tubercle

68.Inf wall MI =.Right marginal artery

69.A person had an accident and there was severe bleeding from his body. He got multiple transfusions but Ecg showed Changes after transfusion due to =hyperkalemia

70.Commonest cause of hydrocephalus = Obstruction of sylvus71.BMR n resting condition maintained by = liver

72.And that conversion of chondrocytes to osteoblast type = Thyroxine73.howship lacunae contain = Osteocytes

74.EF increase will cause = dec in ESV

75.true about vertebral column. = Inter vertebral disc forms 1/4 of total

76.thalasemia in fetus how to diagnose = cvs >>>mother hb electrphoreis

77.an old man with mi suddenly develop peripheral cyanosis. =V/Q mismatch

78..Metastasis is the result of. = Loss of e cadherin

79.extra systole will cause = dec in contractility

80.true abt allele = non identical chromosomes at same locus

81.septic shock mostly due to = gram negative

82.which present in post mediastinum. = descending thoracic aorta

83.standing form sitting heart rate will increase due to =. dec discharge form Baroreceptor

84.Travellers’ diarrhea = Diaphenoxylate

85.Common support for uterus = transverse cervical ligament

86.Infusion of hypertonic saline will cause = inc ECF vol

87. Aggregation of L.Node surrounded by stratified squamous epithelium. = palatine tonsil

88.which increase obstructive lung disease. = FRC89..carbon laden macrophages = Pneumoconiosis90.lobar pneumonia Ix. =sputum culture for bacteria91.pannus formation = RA

92.1st bone to ossify = clavicle

93.most common fractured bone = clavicle (if asked in lower limb , click tibia and if asked in hand prefer scapoid and if asked face , then nasal fracture )

94…polio affects = ant horn cell of spinal cord

95….selective Cox2>> cox1 meloxicam ( if asked highly selective prefer Celecoxib over meloxicam if in options, while if asked potent cox2 inhibitor prefer meloxicam)96..primary brain vesicle = mesencephalon

97…128 Hz tuning fork frequency what will stimulate = Pacinian

(pacinian will detect low frequency vibration while for high frequency click messiner)

98.Lft hand tremor dystonia = left cerebellar lesion

99..temporal bone fracture will cause = memory loss

1000.reticular activating center = Brain stem

01.ECA differs frm ICA. = ECA gives branches in neck02.down syndrome = rebertsonian translocation

03.a pt taking fruits and vegetables. = will cause vit B12 def04.a thin lean lady will low Ca after fracture = vit D defcncy

05..a man is told by his dr that he has trnd out to be positive serology becx of sex History 3 weeks back = Penile chancre

06.. Measles will cause = pan sclerosing encephalitis07. echo virus will cause = meningitis

08.HIV will cause = kaposi sarcoma >> squmous09.always associated with HIV = Cervical CA10.meningitis with rashes. = penicillin

11.not a component of innate immunity……… 4 type of Ig >> plasminogen12.myeloperoxidase specific for = Neutrophil

13.RBCs have = glycolytic activity

14. Red blood cell antigens = secreted in saliva15.temporalis is supplied by =trigeminal

16.unable to close eye = Facial nerve lesion ( the job of Cranial nerve 3 is to keep the eye open and the job of cranial nerve seven is to keep the eye closed)

17.not related with HLA = systemic sclerosis

18.langerhan giant cell seen in which type of hypersensitivity reaction = type419.in PPD what seen = T cell and macrophage

20.cell swelling is due to = entry of water

21.in black most common complication of wound healing = keloid22.Aggresive Ca = melanoma

23.tumor with metastasis what should be most commonly seen = Cachexia24.gene amplification = neuroblstoma

25.main resistance for albumin =.GB

26. Hb 10, O2 saturation 90% ( convert 90% to 0.9 ), PaO2 60 , ask about to calculate O2 contents = 13 ans (see solution below)

*Formula for oxygen content =(Hb g/dL ×1.34)×SaO2 + PaO2×0.003 oxy content = (10× 1.34) × 90% + 60 × 0.003

oxy content = 13.4 × 0.9 + 0.18

oxy content = 12.06 + 0.18 = 12.24 = 13 approximately27.RBC antigens are = glycoproteins ( Ref ;Edward F Goljan )

28.Cranial nerves 7, 9 , 10 taking taste sensations converge on = nucleus of tactus solitarus (how to memorize; remind yourself that these are the nerves carrying taste sensations, so call this nucleus tastus saltarus instead of tactus solitarus )

29.GFR and Blood flow increases = due to dilation of afferent arterioles

30.Most common CNS tumor in children is = astrocytoma (primary brain tumors in children :

Cystic cerebellar astrocytoma > medulloblastoma > brainstem glioma while in adults in order:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM > meningioma, >ependymoma)

31.Which nerve branch of cervical plexus supply posterior auricular area =lesser occipital nerve (lesser occipital nerve , ie the anterior ramus of C2 supplies the area behind the ear )

32.Hogdkin lymphoma cervical lymph nodes and spleen involved = stage 3 ( as both sides of diaphragm are involved )

stages of Hodgkin lymphoma are;

stage 1 = only one group of lymph nodes/organ involved

stage 2 = more than one groups/organ but on same side of diaphragm stage 3 = lymph nodes/organ on both sides of diaphragm

stage 4 = wide spread lymphoma

33.Clot retraction is medicated by = thrombosthenin ( note that clot retraction is the function exclusively specific to platets)

34.Most common brain tumor = Astrocytoma (Accounts for about 70% of all neurogical tumors)

35.Regarding malignant melanoma arrange cell in chronologic order which will present earlier = melanocytes > lymphocytes

36.Hemophilia , joint pain six months now presents , which substance will be present= cholesterol (ans from senior, I couldn’t find any authentic ref)

37.Post HIV operation theater will be cleaned by = 2% gluteraldehyde 38.Flourecent and resistant to antibiotics = teponema ( though treponema is treated with penicillin G, but still its one of the infection hard to treat by antibiotics ) 39.Sciatic nerve damaged, and dorsal surface of foot still has sensation , nerve supply is saphenous,(saphenous nerve supplies medial side of leg and also foot extending to its dorsum up to lesser extent, and it’s the branch of Femoral nerve, while all others are the branches of sciatic nerve, so saphenous holds true as per exclusion ) The other options were sural , tibial and common peroneal

40..Whole wheat contains which vitamin = Thiamine

(vitamin-B1 Sources; Liver, eggs, whole grain cereal, rice, and wheat note that Removal of the outer layer of grain in the refining process eg white bread significantly lowers thiamine content)

41.Pulmonary symptoms are by = ascarisais

42.17-ketosetoids in urine and ambiguous genitalia = adrnalectomized female(Increase in 17-KS, testosterone, and DHT; causes Ambiguous genitalia in females primarily due to the increase in DHT and it effect on the external genitalia. First step when identifying ambiguous genitalia is to check the genetic sex of the newborn with a chromosome analysis)

43.Median nerve damaged which action of median nerve will be impaired ,=opposition

(explanation along with other options,

Flexion (flexor pollicis brevis has dual supply i.e both from ulnar and medial so flexion is least affected in case of median nerve injury)

Extension (extensor are supplied by Radial nerve not median)

Abduction ( abduction is not lost because, abduction is carried out by two muscles, ie abductor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus, so if brevis is lost, longus can compensate for it)

Adduction, ( adductor pollicis is supplied by ulnar nerve)

Opposition (while opposition of the thumb is only and only the function of median nerve so its ans)

35.Lymph from the testes drains into = para-aortic lymph nodes (lymph nodes of testes drains into para-aortic lymph nodes , at the level of L2 (while lymph drainage form scrotum is into superficial inguinal lymph nodes )

36.Ventral surface of the foot is supplied by which nerve = Medial planter nerve ( tibial nerve divides into medial and lateral planter nerves that supplies foot)37.Desending thoracic aorta = supplies, pericardium, esophagus, and brochus38.Thyroid gland drains into = deep cervical lymph nodes

39.Superficial epigastric artery is a branch of = Femoral artery ( this artery is one of the superficial branches of femoral artery and should not be confused with superior epigastric artery )

40.Artery that arise in the substance of parotid gland and lies at posterior border of digastric muscles = posterior auricular artery ( external carotid artery in the substance of gland divides and give posterior auricular artery)

41.Which one is involved in portal hypertension = esophageal artery ( a branch of the left gastric artery, that forms port-systemic shunt with azygous vein, and is the artery responsible for esophageal varices and hematemesis)|

42.Mass of the hair is because of = keratin (up to 95% of the hair mass is because of keratin)

43.Spleencectomy vessels present in which ligament = spleenorenal ligament(splenic artery enters into the hilum of spleen in spleenorenal ligament , splenic vein lies below the splenic artery in the spleenorenal ligament ( while six short gastric arteries passes to the fundus of stomach in gastrosplenic ligament)

44.Neck of bladder and proximal urethra are supplied by =, symphathetic by hypogastric ( sympathetic fibers from L1 & L2 segment of the cord via superior and inferior hypogastric plexus)

45.Surgical neck of humerus which artery damaged = posterior circumflex (Surgical neck is a narrow area distal to tubercle, that’s, the common site for fracture and is in contact with axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery )

46.Which muscle is flexor of forearm and supplied by radial =brachioradialis

47. Circumflex branch is damaged which area will be affected = left ventricle and left atrium

48.Artery involved in inferior wall MI = posterior inter-ventricularartery49..Sinus in jaw plus yellow granules = actinomyces

50.Abduction up to 40 degree is lost = supraspinatus

51.Fracture of surgical neck of Humerus damage to = Axillary Nerve ( note that deltoid is supplied by axillary and damage to it result in loss of abduction,supraspinatus – by suprascapular nerve = 15 to 30 degree abduction Deltoid – by axillary nerve = upto 90 degree abduction

● trapezius – by accessory nerve = above 90 degree abduction52.Inversion of foot by which muscle = Tibialis Posterior53.Lateral foot dermatome = S1

54.Most appropriate about Clavipectroral Fascia =Covers Pectoralis Minor55.The specific feature of Apoptosis = cell shrinking ( if councelman body is mentioned in options then click that )

56. Open wound healing includes = myofibroblast

57.An obese man with h/o atherosclerosis underwent laparotomy due to bleeding in abdomen n during surgery, his small gut was purple n sup mesenteric artry was blocked , so what is dx =wet gangrene

58.Cervical rib attached to trverse process of cevical rib will compress = T1

59.Aortic aneurysm which structure not compressed: Phrenic nerve

60.Mucus not secreted by = terminal bronchioles

61.nerve supply of extensor digiti minimi = deep radial nerve ( all the extensors of hand are supplied by Deep branch of radial nerve )

62. Pregnant lady anaemic, Best lab Investigation = CBC63.The muscle that causes eversion of foot = peroneus longus

64.Anion gap = difference b/w measured cation and unmeasurd anion65.regarding cimitidine intake what effect causes =.inibition of hepatic enzymes66.which of the following is premalignant lesion = lichen planus

67.ewing sarcoma occurs which site of bone = diaphysis68.spermatogenesis is stimulated by = FSH and testosterone69.epididymis drain into = vasdeferens

70.regarding lesser sac = double peritonal layer

71.basic scavengers = macrophages

72.K in diet is excreted in which part of nephron = distal tubules (Note that, 67% of the filtered K is reabsorbed along proximal tubule , but Distal tubules and collecting ducts either reabsorb or secrete K , depending on dietary K intake, the excretion ranges from 1% to 110% . if both DCT and collecting duct are present in options prefer, distal convoluted tubules)

73.narrowest part of urethra = external meautis74. ca prostate spread by = vertebral plexus

75.A patient using INH for TB prophylaxis, which vitamin he should use to avoid adverse effect = pyridoxine

76.after non-lethal MI in 4 minutes = arrhythmias77.opsonization occurs = help of c3b

78.fracture of 9th and 10th ribs will cause injury of which organ = spleen79.Saphenous nerve terminal br of = femoral

80.Adductor muscle hamstring muscle supplied by which nerve = tibial

81.loss of small muscle of one hand damaged = C8,T1 ( if u have to prefer one, then click T1)

82.gracillis nerve supplied by = obturator nerve

83.Adductor brevis supplied by = ant branch of obturator nerve

84.regarding tramadol true is, = weak meu agonist

85.epitheial changes in endocervix in squamous tissue due to = metaplasia86.ketorolac analgesia most preferable = Non diabetic cholecyctectomy87.middle rectal artery branch of = internal iliac

88.hemisetion with total spinal section differentaiad by = spinal shock89.gas having mximum diffusion capacity in body fluids = CO290.margins of TB ulcer = undermined

91.Internal laryngeal nerve passes through = thyroid and hyoid92.liver development = from ventral mesentry proximal Foregut

93.patient developed hemolysis due toG6PdD deificiency nxt happen = self limiting94. required for transport of B12 in blood = TC2

95.protein content less in glomerular filtrate occur due to = pore size and negative charge

96.superficial parotid painless tumor, pseudopoid growth, contain no capsule on histopathology = pleomorphic adenoma

97.Hypertensive ulcer = Martorel

98.regarding pituitary gland true is = vein drain directly in dural sinuses99.Anemia with Blast Cells in peripheral blood = Erythroblastosis fetalis ( note the point ie BLAST in the question and BLAST in the answer )

1100: Which ligament supports odontoid process of axis on atlas = transvers ligament

01. Shivering center is located in = post hypotahlmus

02. Group of young men bathing n beech next day develop blisters on back shoulder limbs region cause is = Mast cell destruction

03.Deep to post digastric and near palatoglossus a structure runs obliquely upwards = Lingual artery

04.Surgery for removal of ovary done which is damaged = Internal Iliac Artery05.man in hot sunny environment fell…finding na 122 due to = excessive sweating06.hip extension and leg flexion by = semitendonosis

07.long thoracic nerve supply to = serratus anterior

08.how much amount of air is required for pulmonary embolism = 100cc09.Facial nerve exits through = stylomastoid foramen

10.Damage to capsule and articular capsule of temporomandibular joint causes damage to which muscle = lateral pterygoid

11.Universal donor = O negative ( while universal recipient is AB positive12.Side effects of chlorpromazine = Dystonia

13.Which structure is formed by the end of first week = blastocyst14.girl cannot comb her hairs Nerve damage = accessory nerve

15.regarding heart sounds = audible on area of heart valves more precisely16.aldosteron major action on = collecting duct

17.injury above sacral spinal cord result in = Spastic bladder (note that UMN lesion ie the lesion above sacral spine is = spastic bladder while due to lesion of the sacral spinal cord segments or sacral spinal nerve roots , means LMN lesion result in so called Atonic bladder. Neurogenic bladder is the term used for both spastic and atonic, so if clear-cut point is not asked then , prefer neurogenic bladder)

18.Cell membrane structure primarily maintained by = Cholesterol bilayer19.Enzyme may fall in liver injury = Pseudocholinesterases [decrease in liver disease(hepatitis and cirrhosis)]

20. which part of liver with poor supply = poor oxygenation of zone 3 ( note that zone 1 is richly supplied with blood and is mainly effected by VIRUSES & INGESTED TOXINS, while zone 3 is poorly perfused and mainly affected by metabolic toxins )21.trachea is = has 16-20 incomplete rings

22.what nerve loops around arch of aorta = left reccurrent laryngeal nerve23.hyper eosinophilia occurs in = hodgkin ( due to IL5, that stimulates the esinophills production )

24.corticopsinal track ends at which level = spinal cord (if asked anterior corticospinal tract or anterior spinothalamic tract ends at ?? the ans for both is = midthoracic region )

25.warthin starry stain used for = spirochete