Tanveer Ahmad Important Medical Points for Medical Students







Tanveer’s Notes for FCPS Part 1. Must have Notes for all FCPS Aspirants.

All The Important CPSP 

Points[2015-2016]

Session # one :

1- Patient with bone pains having normal Calcium,Inc Alkaline phosphatase most likely suffering from = Pagets Disease (note ;

Osteoporosis = Labs are normalPagets disease = only ALP is raisedOsteopetrosis = Only Ca is dec

Osteomalacia = Vit D dec → dec Ca & phosphates → inc PTH & ALP )

2-.Erythropoises occurs in middle trimester mainly from liver

(Regarding Fetal erythropoiesis ●3 to 6 weeks = Yolk sac

●6 weeks till birth = Liver ●10 to 28 weeks= Spleen

●18 weeks to adult = Bone Marrow)

3-Vertebrae is derived from = Sclerotome,

4-Memory center is located in = Temporal lobe ( note ; for Dejavu = temporal lobe)

5-The most common type of salivary gland tumor is = Parotids

6-Distruction of Ant.pituatary gland causes dec.functioning of = Glom.fasiculata

( Remember the Mnemonic GFR ie

●Glomerulosa → aldosterone and this one is under the control of Angiotensin not ●Fasiculata → Cortisol and this one is under the control of pituitary ●Reticularis→ Sex steroids )

7- A normal looking Girl came to you with primary amenorrhea, on examination she was having short blind vagina wid normal vulva, scanty pubic n axillary hairs, normal breasts, absent uterus, her karyotype is = 46XY ( blind vagina and absent uterus always mean XY until proved otherwise )

8-Nerve supply to extensors of arm is supplied by Post cord (Radial nerve is from posterior cord )

9-Nerve injured in Ant dislocation of Shoulder joint is = Axillary

10-Damage to scaphoid bone causes injury to = Radial Artery

11-Common site of fracture at rib is = Angle

12-Following is not a tumor marker = Acid Phospatase

13-Most common histology found in lung tumors is = Adenocarcinoma

14-Patients comes with Rt. deviation of tongue, Dec.sense of touch and vibartions,the artery commonly involved in brain is = Ant.Spinal artery ( whenever u see deviation of tongue in such a scenario, look for ant spinal artery in options )

15-Soldier comes with heavy bleeding,the ideal fluid replacement would be = Whole blood for 3 days ( same for same, ie for heavy blood loss, prefer blood )

16-Maxillary sinus opens into = Middle meatus

17-Patient having increased levels of IgE,most probably suffering from = Parasitic infection

18-Autospy done on the patient having CRF,most prabable finding would be =Hypertrophied PTH gland

19-Excitation of hypothalamus would cause Shivering

(note for hypothalamus remember that

ANTERIOR is for cooling and POSTERIOR is for heating

ANTERIOR is parasympathetic center while POSTERIOR is sympathetic)

20-Foetal period starts after which week =8th

(3-8 weeks = Embryonic period, this is most sensitive to teratogens, while fetal period starts after week 8)

21-Patient having dec levels of factorII,VII,IX,X,most likely have = Dec Vit.K

( memorize vit K DEPENDENT FACTORS by 1972 ie factor 2,7 .9 ,and 10 consider 1 as = Factor 10 )

22-Young pt having Hb:6.0,TLC:3.5/ul,Plts:1lac is suffering from = Aplastic anemia

23-Nucleus ambigus supplies = Larynx

(Nucleus ambigus is for IX,X,XI ie cranial nerves 9, 10, 11 also remember that the parasympathic nucleus for vagus nerve is DORSAL NECLEUS, ASKED REPEATEDLY IN PAST PAPERS)

24-Olfactory area is present in = temporal gyrus ( this the only sensation that doesnt pass through thalamus )

25-Patient with injury to left 8th cervical segment of spinal cord will not show following sign = Dec sense of pain and temperature below the lesion on same side (pain and temp loss are contralateral ie opposite to the lesion , while position and vibrations senses are ipsilateral)

26-Feature of Rickets and Osteomalacia is = Decreased bone density 

27-Mostcommon site of malignancy in pts suffering from nuclear outbreak =

Hematopoietic (dont confuse it with head and neck radiations that causes papillary thyroid cancer)

28-Virus acts on cells by = Involving protein synthesis

29-Most sensitive cells to hypoxia are = Neurons

30-Myelin in CNS is formed by = Oligodendrocytes

31-Feature not associated with irreversible cell injury is = Myelin figures(For cpsp always remember Myelin figure = Reversible injury)

32-Ureter is not constricted at = Psoas muscle

33-Common relation of ureter is = Ant.to gonadal vessels and post.to iliac Artery

34-Patientfeels pain after she underwent surgery for fibroids, structure injured would be = Ureters

35-Least common site for ectopic pregnancy would be at = Ovaries

36-Gall bladder is supplied by = Only Cystic Artery

37-Venous drainage of urinary bladder is into = Internal Iliac Vein

(those who appear in Gynea exam, should cram the whole anatomy of urinary bladder)

38. Patient with fluid loss now show metabolic acidosis e hypokalemia. most fluid loss will be through = Colon ( colon is reservoir of HCO3 & POTASSIUM, and in diarrhea both are lost resulting in acidosis and hypokalemia

39-Patient having hyperplastic bone marrow, anaemia, Increase Platelets is probably suffering from = Leaukemia

40-Stimulus for Erythropoietin secretion is = Hypoxia

41-Erytropoiten is always raised in = Sec.polycythemia

(Polycythemia vera is only type of polycythemia in which there is Dec. EPO)

43-Patient after gastrectomy is on VitB12,the cells lost in the gastrectomy = parietal

44-Fat tags attached to the walls of large intestine are known as = Appendeces epiplocea

45-Bile salts are reabsorbed from the = Ileum

46-Following is an autosomal dominant disease is = Hereditary spherocytosis

47-Type of defect in Hereditary spherocytosis = Structural defect

48-Patient with jaundice, anaemia,high reticulocyte count is having Hemolytic anaemia

49-Ejaculatory duct opens into = Prostatic urethra

50-Terminal part of CBD in relation to pancreas is = Embedded into pancreas

51-Following would cause massive infarction and destruction leading to patient death = Thromboembolism

52- A 22yrs female pt.with 13th week of pregnancy after having crush fractures in RSA dies after 3 days, most likely cause of death is = Fat embolism

(Note that if fracture and 3 days duration are not mentioned then better option will be amniotic fluid embolism ie it causes immediate deaths)

53-Patient with old history of adenoCA of colon is operated for polypectomy,on histologic evaluation pathologist labelled it as benign growth with no chances into malignant transformation,it would be Tubular adenoma

54-Tyrosine derivative doesnt include = Prolactin

55-Precursor of steriod hormone is = Cholesterol

58-Wasting of thenar eminence,loss of sensation over thumb and index finger,nerve involved is = Median Regarding wasting of the thenar eminence always click median nerve)

59-The base of urinary bladder is made by = Post surface

60-Shock without having vasodilation is likely associated with = Burns

61-Following doesnt form the layer of inguinal canal = rectus abdominus

62-Femoral sheath is formed by = Fasica transersalis and Fasica iliaca

63- The muscle involved in unlocking of knee joint is = Poplitus,

64-External spermatic fascia is formed by: = External oblique

65-In Turner syndrome, the genotype would be = XO

66-Organ having least chances of infarction = Liver

67-Type of necrosis in brain infarction = Liquefactive

68-Pt.with cervical lymphadenopaty,+ve AFB sputum,sign to look for TB on microscopy is = caseous necrosis

69-Thyroid gland moves with swallowing because it is enclosed in = Pretracheal fasica

70-Neurovascular bundle in chest wall lies between = Internal and Innermost layers

71-Fibrous pericardium and mediastinal pleura is supplied by = Phrenic Nerve

( Remember the Mnemonic i-e

●Fibrous pericardium = Phrenic (frenic) nerve ● Visceral pericardium = Vagus nerve)

72-Man is suffering from testicular ca,the lympahtic drainage of testis is into = Para aorticLymph nodes

73-In exercise,the venous blood returns to the heart by = Muscle pump in calves

74-Circulation in heart is maintained by = Local metabolites

75-Fisherman is presented with gingival bleeding and ecchymosis,he is suffering from = Vit C deficiency

( NOTE ; In vit B12 def due to Diphylobotram Latum among the fishermen, they wont mention points like gingival bleed and ecchymosis)

76-Factor affecting collagen synthesis during healing is = Vit C

77-Mesothelioma is associated with = Asbestos

78-Child having meckels diverticulum is having bleeding per rectum,it is due to = Ectopic gastric tissue

79-During lactation,Amenorrhea is due to = Inhibition of LH and FSH

80-Presence of pancratic tissue in gastric mucosa is termed as = Choristoma( The other site for choristoma is Brain tissue in Nasal cavity )

81-Main difference between primary and secondary intention wound healing is = Wound contraction

82-Child with sore throat after 3 weeks developed oedema,haemturia,cause would be = post streptococcal GN

83-Microscopic feature of polyarterites nodusa is = Fibrinoid necrosis (for any vasculitis remember fibrnoid nerosis, for brains liqufactive and for solid organs remember coagulative necrosis , TB also has a type of coagluative necrosis)

84-Angiotension II exerts its effects by activating = Aldosterone

85-Tumor compressing optic chiasma would cause = Bitemporal haemianopia

86-Growth hormone is maximally rasies in = Exercise

( ●For max growth hormone sec NREM sleep > Exercise > REM

● if only sleep is mentioned then prefer Exercise and if NREM sleep is mentioned then click it)

87.Lymph drainage of perianal skin is from one of the following = medial group of horizontal superficail nodes

88.Lesser omentum = .connects with deudenum

89.Which of the following is not a feature of shock = increased urine output

90.Which is most imp indicator of muscle protein loss = urinary nitrogen

91.what is true about DNA = .Double stranded in which two strands are antiparallel to each other

92.Least chances of renal stones is associated with = Hyperlipidemia

93.A pt came to you with primary amenorrhea, webbed neck, short stature diagnosed as Turner syndrome, what is her karyotype = A.45XO

94.supply of sphincter urethra comes from .Pudendal nerves

95.Thymus develops from = endoderm of 3rd brachial pouch

96.A pt presented with an opening in the ant wall of sternocledomastoid muscle with pussy discharge coming out of it.this problem occurred due to abnormality in one of the following = 2nd pharyngeal cleft

97.Diaphragmatic hernia occurs due to absence of pleuro-peritonealmembrane

98. Adult derivative of notochord is: = Nucleus pulposis

99.Superior parathyroid gland develops from = .4th brachial pouch

100.In cervical carcinoma,what is the lymph drainage = both internal & external iliac

101. Cervical rib attached to transverse process will compress = T1(though it can Compresses both C8 and T1 )

102. Aortic aneurysm which structure not compressed = Phrenic nerve

103. Resting membrane potential achieved by =Diffusion of potassium outside the cell

(Achieved by K efflux, maintained by N-K ATPase Pump while depolarization is maintained by Na influx)

104. Liver weight = 1.5 kg (1.44-1.66 kg is Range)

105. What is median if values are 20 20 25 30 35 40 25 30 = 27.5

(Arrange in Ascending order 20 20 25 25 30 30 35 40 than take middle two values 25+30/2=27.5)

106.. Dead organisms in vaccine = Pertussis

(Pertusis, Cholera, Influenza ,Inj Polio & Rabies all Killed vaccines while Tetanus is Toxoid and MMR is Live attenuated)

107.Esophagectomy done , stomach is mobilized to upper portion of thorax, To anastomosis with pharynx Which artery is responsible for stomach supply = Right gastroepiploic

108. Patient is pregnant and suddenly faints. She’ll be positioned in left lateral and not right lateral to avoid compression to which abdominal structure = IVC

109.Post op wound having greenish pus discharge organism involved = Pseudomonas

110.Prevalence is = All cases

(Prevalence: All current cases (old & new) while incidence is just new cases)

111Common carcinogen of CA Cervix = HPV

112.Apex of the heart = 8 cm from median plane

113.After normal delivery in primigravida the alive n healthy new born is given feed = After half hour ( Nelsons states 1 hour, but prefer half hour if in options )

114.Diagnostic tumor marker for ovarian CA = CA 125

115.Which of the following prolong use of drug will cause persistent increase in Gastrin secretion = PPI

116.A pt presented to his dentist due to inability to put his dentures, dentist referred back to physician saying there is no dental problem, where is the lesion = Substantia nigra

117.Chronic Myeloid Leukemia = Chromosome 9 & 22

118.Steroids drug action on cells = Act on Genes (all steroids & thyroxin act on genes)

119.ADH is inhibited by = Alcohol

120.A tumor with all germ layers = Teratoma

121.Following has high clearance value = . PAH

122.Scanty bar bodies = . Turner (REMEBER IF ASKED

Bar body diagnostic of then = klienfilter

scanty bar body or no bar body then = turner

bar body TEST is diagnostic for = turner)

123.Which parasite is not transmitted thru orofecal route = Trichenella Spiralis(Humans get it when they eat infected meat/pork )

124.Organelle having microtubules in its structure = Centriole

125.S1 nerve root lesion = . Loss of Ankle jerk

126.Mucus not secreted by = Terminal bronchioles

127.Which of the following increases lower esophageal tone n speeds up gastric emptying time = Metoclopramide

128.Diphtheria vaccine reaction = :type 3 ( remember any serum will cause serum sickness ie type 3 hypersensitivity )

129.Femoral nerve drived from which section of spinal cord = . L2 L3 L4

130.Deep coma is caused by lesion of which nucleus = . Nucleus cerelous

(REMEMBER IF ASKED

Deep coma then nucleus cerelous

Prolonged coma then Periq aquiductal gray matter ( p for prolonged & p for periquiductal &

●permanent coma = thalamus )

132. A man of 70 has recurrent UTI cause = Outflow Obstruction

(old age chances of BPH → lead to outflow obstruction→ leading to recurrent UTI)

133. Normal FEV/FVC1 Ratio = 0.8

134. Compression effects on esophagus by which organ enlargement = Left Atrium

135. Plasma Protein Binds With All Except = Oxygen

136. Patient presented in emergency, deeply comatosed,not responding to nalaxone: =

Phenobarbital

137. Cause of Mental retardation = Fragile X Syndrome if down syndrome is mentioned then click it, because Fragile X syndrome is the 2nd most common cause)

138. In IV drugs abusers = Bacterial Endocarditis ( STAPH ARUEUS)

139. Highest bioavailability of anti-emetics = Metacloprmide

140. X.ray of elbow of 12 yr girl, which Secondary ossification center will appear last on x.ray = Lateral Epicondyle

(capitellum > radial head > medial epicondyle > trochlea > olecranon > lateral epicondyle → 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 9 , 11 (ODD Numbers so 11 is lateral epicondyle)

141.Baby born on 4th day most common cause of Meningitis = E.Coli(REMEBER : in newborns, GROUP B STREP GROUP ie strep agalactea IS ON THE TOP)

142.A tall man with normal external genitalia married but had no kids he had normal ejaculation period but semen analysis showed azospermia cause may be=Sertoli cell

143.Pregnant lady anaemic, Best lab investigation = CBC

(IF ASKED IRON DEF ANEMIA THEN SERUM FERRITIN, TIBC may give false value, cz its affected by pregnancy)

144. Highest percentage of protein in = HDL (NOTE THE POINT; IF ASKED HIGHEST THEN

●PROTEIN = HDL

●TGs = CHYLOMICRON > VLDL

●CHOLESTEROL = LDL)

145.Soft Keratin with no nucleus found in = Stratum corneum

146.A newly married female came with pain in rt illiac fossa her TlC 12000 she has fever n vomiting her lmp was 3 weeks back what is diagnosis = Acute Appendicitis

147.Open wound healing includes = Contraction of myofibroblast

148.Patient aged 65 years, is diagnosed to have severe aplastic anemia. HLA compatible sibling is available. The best option of treatment is: = Anti thymocyte globulin followed by cyclosporine

(REMEMBER ;

●ATG & CYCLOSPORIN = 1st line for non-severe aplastic anemia , or severe aplstics >

140years og age or sever aplastic who have no HLA identicl sibling donor ….

●HSCT (transplant ) = 1st line for the patients who have sever aplatic and have HLA MATCHED sibling donor)

149.Most common S/E of use of histamine 1 blocker = Sedation

150.Decrease Insulin will = Ketogenesis in Liver

151.An obese man with h/o atherosclerosis underwent laparotomy due bleeding in abdomen and during surgery his small gut was purple n sup mesenteric vein was ok so what is dx =

Wet gangrene

152.First heard sound is produced during = Isovlumic contraction

153.A patient came with c/o bitmep hemianopia so a blockage was seen at = Upper part of optic chiasma ( best ans is optic chiasma, but if both upper and lower part are in options, prefer the upper part of optic chiasma )

154.30 yr male newly diagnosed wth HTN, on ECG lt ventricular hypertrophy, serum cholesterol 200, FBS 88 mg%, urinary sugar ++ RFTs were normal, K 2.5 , Na 140, what is cause of his HTN = Primary hyperaldosteronism

155.Man With Weakness And Dysphagia, Blood Profile With Target Cells = Iron Deficiency Anemia

156.Which of the following in maternal serum for rubella should b an indication for termination of pregnancy = Ig M

157.Epithelium of Conjunctiva = Stratified Columnar Epithelium ( non-keratinized )

158. Antioxidant Vitamin = vit E (REMEMBER IF ASKED ●Potent one then = Glutathion > vit E

●among vitamins then = vit E > vit C)

159.Which of the following does not increase in stress for surgery = Insulin

160.Monitoring of HEP B virus can be done via = . SGPT (or ALT)

161.Diseased ovary pain radiating to medial thigh of body due to nearby presence of = Obturator Nerve

162.Biguanides side affects = Diarrhea and flatulence

163.Patient with Gastrectomy presents with Anemia after One and half year, what will you give = Vit B12

164.Data is collected for some clinical trial based on presence or absence of Vomiting. What type of data it is = Nominal (whenever asked about nominal remember = its the data type where u have to ans between the two variables like YES OR NO, RIGHT OR WRONG , PRESENCE OR ABSCENCE etc while ordinal gives u order like PRIMARY > SECONDARY > TIRTIARY)

165.Aphasia (Non-fluent) after stroke or Trauma which area of Brain is involved = Brocas(fluent aphasia is due to wernickes area involvement)

166.What cytoskeletal structure connects Extracellular matrix to Intracellular =intermediate filaments (Also remember that C for Cadherin and C for cell; so it mediates cell to cell attachments and is important in case of metastasis)

168.Cardiac defects in fetus of mother suffering from rubella infection will occur if = 5 th to 10th week

169.Dorsal Column Medial Leminsical carries = Proprioception

170.Contralateral loss of pain and temp at T9 and ipsilateral loss of proprioception below T8, bilateral normal reflexes = Lesion of spinothalamic tract at T8

( In these scenarios always decide the level of lesion by the level at which there is loss of peropioception like in this case T8 is given so lesion should be at T8 )

171.Downs Syndrome = Increase incidence with increasing mother age

172.Pulmonary vasoconstriction occurs due to = Reduced systemic PO2 ( this concept is repeatedly asked in many ways but the basic concept remains the same ie HYPOXIA CAUSES VASOCONSTRICTION IN PULMONARY VESSELS, )

173.Most imp buffer in blood = HCO3

174.Gastrin secretion is inhibited by = Somatostatin

175.Which vitamin act as cofactor in oxidation of fatty acids = Biotin

176.Oxytocin and vasopressin originated from = Hypothalamus

177.If FACTOR IX not available = FFP

(cyropreciptate is for factor 8, so to memorize pronounce it as CRYOPRICEPIT-8)

178.All of the following will cause lesion at genital tract except = Gonorrhoea

179.Vagus decreases HR by which mechanism = Na (permeability) ( the mechanism is , parasymp system decreases Na CHANNELS INWARD CURRENT THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PHASE 4 DEPOLARIZATION IN SA NODE )

180.Maximum absorption of water = Jejunum

181.Patient with beta blocker ECG show increase PR = Drug induced block

182.Drug causing peripheral neuro and pancreatits = Diadenosine

183.Left Kidney is not related to = Diaphragm

184.What age the head of fetus become exactly half the length at CRL = 3rd month

185.Prostatic carcinoma spread to skull bones through = Vertebral plexus

186.First heart sound = Isovlumic contraction

187. Pregnant women 1st trimester develops Atrial fibrillation what would u give = IV Heparin

188. The tumor which is the ovarian counter part of seminoma of the testis is =

Dysgerminoma

189.Patient came in with sore throat, fever and lymphadenopathy. His monspot test was positive. His blood shows atypical leukocytosis. What is the type of cell that is affected =B- cell (REGARDING INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS IF ASKED

●Type of cell affected then = B CELLS

●Atypical cells that proliferate in response then = T CELLS)

190.Pt was brought into the Emergency Department and his family wanted to accompany him. What is the most appropriate response = Only pt should be allowed in the ER

191.A pregnant full term patient came into the ER with pre-eclampsia. Her Blood pressure was 190/110. She was admitted for emergency ceserean section. What is the best medicine to bring down the blood pressure = Hydralazine

192.Patient was admitted in the ICU. HE had a central venous catheter for 10 days. HE started having fevers. Blood cultures were sent. It came back positive for Gram positive cocci in clusters. What medication will you start = Vancomycin

(Always mark Vancomycin if CVP line,Indwelling catheter or double lumen site Infection especially in hospitalized patient and that too in ICU or dialysis units. High prevalence of MRSA.)

193.Pt comes in to the emergency department with seizures. His BP is 90/60. His serum calcium level is 6, serum cortical level is 6 microg/dl , blood sugar level is 80 mg/dl. What is the diagnosis = Tetany

194.About Lignocaine what is true = Prevents influx of Na ions across membrane

195.INR is for = Oral anticoagulation therapy:

( For warfarin monitering INR >>> PT )

196.A Person wid malignant melanoma. Risk factor = Xeroderma pigmentosum

197.Diabetic patient with DKA died due to = Mucormycosis

198.Urethra is narrowest at = External meatus

199.Married man had no children for few years and was diagnosd as sterile with azoospermia wat is investigatn of choice = Serum FSH and LH

200.A man goes to a high altitude 02 delivery to tissues is maintained by = Hb conc is increased

01. Regarding indication of furosemide = Acute pulmonary edema

02. A patient was brought to the hospital after a roadside accident. On examination he was pale with low blood pressure and fracture of left 10th rib. Which organ is most likely to be injured = Spleen

03. Most common cause of premalignant change in mouth in adult = Lichen planus ( some colleagues saying chronic ulcer, none of the authentic books support that , and one more question often asked, thats , what will beetle nut chewing cause and ans is submucosal fibrosis,)

05. Tumor in children with blue cells and high levels of catecholamines = Neuroblastoma06. Ligament that prevents anterior dislocation of femur on tibia = Posterior cruciate

(NOTE; if anterior dislocation of tibia on femure is mentioned then anterior cruciate ligament)

07. Cholangiocarcinoma caused by = Cholonorchis Sinensis08. Trauma to left 10 rib causes damage to = Spleen

09.Farmer wid migratory lesion on foot = Cutaneous Larva migrans

10.Washed RBCs are used for prevention of = Hypersensitive Reaction

11.Eating raw or undercooked meat can cause infection by = Tapeworm

12.Man comes 1st time to Pakistan develops fever than coma, on investigation retics10%..Platelets wbcs ↓ Falciparum

13.Correct about Aorta =. Gives renal arteries at L2

14.Scrotum drains to = Superficial Inguinal Nodes

15.Small muscles of hand are supplied by = T1

16.Pancreatitis(acute) will cause fluid accumulation in = Lesser sac

17.Deep ring present in = Fascia transversalis

18.Eversion is done by = Peroneus longus

19.True about Thoracic duct, drains into = At Confluence of left Subclavian and left Jugular

20.Gustatory sweating is caused by = Superficial Parotidectomy

(Freys Syndrome produces flushing and sweating instead of salivation in response to taste of food after injury of AURICULOTEMPORAL which carries Parasympathetic secretomotor fibers to PAROTID gland and Sympathetic fibers to SWEAT gland. When the nerve is severed the fibers can regenerate along each pathway and innervate the wrong gland. It can occur after Parotid surgery and may be treated by cutting the tympanic plexus in middle ear- Ref BRS Anatomy)

21.Analgesic causing tachycardia in therapeutic dose = Pethidine

22.Following is a good analgesic but weak anaesthetic = NO

23.About Posterior Triangle of Neck what is true: = Contains subclavian , three trunks of brachial plexus

24.Herpez simplex virus transmitted by = .droplet

25.Pt came in with abdominal pain, his amylase was high, he was diagnosed with Pancreatitis. What is his omentum going to show = Fatty necrosis

27.Which carcinoma doesnt show distant metastasis = Basal cell Carcinoma

28.Orofecal transmission = HEV

29.When tension in muscle increases near to rupture which does the relaxation = Golgi tendon organs

30.Golgi tendon organs respond to = Tension FOR BOTH 129 AND 130 QUES

REMMEBER = TENSION AND TENDON i.e when tension on a muscle increases golgi tendon organs starts firing and relaxes it )

31.Pacemaker of Heart = SA Node ( reason for being master is, SA node generates impulses at faster rate, if asked , never be confused by points like automaticity etc)

32.Parasympathetic stimulation = Decreases HR

33.Sacral hiatus is formed due to = Failure of fusion of laminae of 4th and 5th sacral vertebrae (Sacral Hiatus is used to administer Caudal (Epidural) anesthesias)

34.Effect of drug on a body = Pharmodynamics

MNEMONIC = D FOR DRUG & D FOR DYNAMICS ie drug on the body is dynamic )

35.Which is not blood supply of scalp = Maxillary artey

36.Hydroxyindol-acetic acid in urine = Carcinoid syndrome

37.Pt came with testicular mass. It was diagnosed as a yolk sac tumor. What is the follow up marker for this patient = Alpha-Fetoprotein

38.In the hospitals most common cause of wound infection = Staph aureus (Ecoli 2nd most common)

39.Nerve loss in urogenital triangle which nerve involved = Pudendal Nerve

40.Neck of femur supplied by = Medial and lateral circumflex arteries

41.A man having recurrent bacterial infections with streptococci also having diarrhea which on examination showed giardiasis, urther exam revealed normal T cells but B cells levels of igM,igG and igA were given Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia

42.True about Pituitary = Drains to dural sinuses

43.About Quadrate lobe, true is = Drains by left hepatic duct

45.Barr body is found in the following phase of the cell cycle = Interphase ( both DNA and choromsomes replicate (Karyotyping is done in metaphase stage to study for chromosomes )

46.Old woman with swelling on external ear she also had gout wd -ve bifringent type crystals scenario was given = Monosodium urate

47.After Cholecystectomy surgeon places drains into = . Right Subhepatic Region

48.Pt having H/o cough cloudy yellow colour effusion fluid containing 98 % neutrophil nd 2% lymphocyte the fluid was dull to percussion = Purulent exudate

49.Isoniazid causes side effects which can be prevented by taking which vitamin =Pyridoxine

50.Gas gangrene. Cause of death = Toxemia

51.Not a feature of malnutrition in adults = Thrombocytopenia

53. A tumor with all germ layers = Teratoma54.Downs syndrome Trisomy 21

55. Ankylosing spondylitis is associated with HLA B27 ( PAIR ie

PSORIASIS , ANKYLOSING SPONDELYTIS , INFLAMATORY BOWL DISEASE RELATED ARTHIRTIS AND RIETER SYNDROME)

56. Female with fever for 10 days and chest pain that aggravates on lying down. Pain is originated at = Pericardium

57.6 years old patient presents with rhinitis, edema and urticaria on external surfaces =Type I hypersensitivity

58.Immediate effects of severe hypotension = Oliguria

59.Transfusion reaction will occur if we transfuse a person with A+ve blood group, the following group = AB-ve

60.Epidural space is widest at =. L2 (5mm)

61.Commonest cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in developing countries = Both Hepatitis B & C (IF B plus C COLLECTIVELY not MENTIONED THEN CLICK ONLY Hep B)

62.Connections that connect cells; with movement of ions across =. Gap junctions

63.HLA B27 associated disease = Reiters Syndrome ( if ankylosing spond present in

options prefer that )

64.Pregnant lady with bile duct obstruction. Diagnostic investigation = GGT (FOR NON PREG = CLICK ALP )

65.About Trichomonas vaginalis what is correct = Is sexually transmitted

66.Anion gap = Diff between measured cation and measured anion

67.Occulomotor nerve supplies = ciliary ganglion

68.Infective endocarditis diagnostic investigation = Blood culture (blood culture for diagnosis & ASO titre FOR THE EVIDENCE OF INFECTION )

69.Essential fatty acid = Linoliec acid (Also Linolenic Acid is among essentials)

70.Patient was brought to the ER unconscious. The doctor gave Naloxone but it was not

working. What is the likely cause of toxicity = Phenobarbital

71. Patient lacerated the dorsal part of his wrist accidentally. He came in with difficulty to adduct the fingers and difficulty abducting the thumb. Which nerve was paralysed = Ulnar Nerve

80.Pain from lower inferior segment of Diaphrgam = Subcostal Nerves ( Phrenic supplies central tendon of diaphrgam)

81.Cingulate gyrus blood supply = Anterior cerebral Artery

82.Dorsal Vein of penis drains into = Greater Saphenous Vein

83.Internal carotid bleeding stopped by compressing = C6

84.A patient has nodule on vocal cord. The most unlikely mechanism = Atrophy

( Hyperplasia = click it if asked the most likely )

85.Edema of acute infection. Feature = Proteins >3gm (EXUDATE)

86.Vein not draining to great cerebral vein = Occipital

87.Extent to which a tissue gets disturbed by occlusion of its blood supply depends on =Rate of development of thrombosis

88.A 15 years old girl with fixed dilated pupils. Lesion is at = Oculomotor nerve

89.Axon arise from conical shape part of neuron cell body called = Axon hillocks

90.Peptic ulcer profusely bleeding from posterior wall of duodenum which artery involed = Gastroduodenal Artery

91.Proteins that escape into tissues from blood vessels = Reabsorbed by lymphatic system

92.Epithelium of kidney endoderm + mesoderm

93.8 mnth Baby boy with repeated rhinitis 2episodes of pneumonia in less then 2 mnth.low plasma B cells n decreased immunoglobulins = IgA deficency

94.Which is not a ‘basic tissue of body = . Blood

95.A 30 years old man had a road traffic accident and sustained fracture of femur. Two days later he developed sudden breathlessness. The most probable cause can be = Fat Embolism

96.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome = Wasting of thenar muscles

97.Which of the following statements about carcinogenesis is false = Papilloma virusesproduce tumors in animals but not in humans

98.Max potassium absorption occurs in = PCT

99.Lung capacity increased in inspiration by 2/3 by = Diaphragm

300. Pitutary Gland Causng Bitmemporal Hemianopia .Where is the lesion = Optic Chiasma

1.Hypermagnesemia = Neuromuscular depression hypo-Mg causes depressed deep tendon reflexes, muscle weakness, if dec acetyl choline release is present in options , click that)

2.Brain blood flow is regulated by = PCO2

3.Confidentiality can be breached = if patient authorize you

4.H202 in which organelle = peroxisomes

5.Cannot regenerate = Lens

6.2nd arch derivative = Stylohyoid

7.Liquefactive necrosis = in brain

8.Golgi muscle tendon = causes muscles relaxation

9.interstitial lung disease with non-caseating granuloma & hilar nodes = Sarcoidosis

10.Most common genetic disorder = Multifactorial11.Muscle of fright and Sadness = Platysma

12.Throid lymph Drainage = deep cervical lymph nodes13.Temporal artery is related to = Auriculotemporal nerve 14.Acute Renal failure part affected = PCT

15.Shoulder pain referred from pleura =C345 16.Lt suprarenal drain = Lt renal vein17.Councilman bodies seen = Apoptosis

18.Basic drug binds = alphaglycoprotein ( while acidic drugs bind albumin )

19.Case control typical scenario = disease and not diseased 20.ICAM and VCAM = adhesion molecules

21.Symphysis pubis joint = Secondary cartilaginous joint ( all midline joints are secondary cartilaginous joints like symphisis menti, joint between vertebrae, symphysis pubic etc )

22.Pyogenic peritonitis – Bacteroids

23.Dif f Malignant and Benign tumors = metastasis24.Microscopic feature Malignant tumor = invasion25.Goblet cells covert to Clara = Terminal bronchioles 26.No lymph nodules = Thymus

27.Megalobalstic anemia invest = Intrinsic factor antibodies28.Scenario Achondroplasia = Autosomal dominant

29.Pt lying on bed at room temp = Conduction

30.Decrease Gentamicin clearance in old age = Decrease renal func

31.Congenital cataract = Rubella

32.Virus act by =altering proteins synthesis 33.No valves seen in = SVC

34.Pt support in our culture =family 35.Fast pain fiber = A delta

36.Preganglionic nerve fiber = B fiber ( while post ganglionic are C fibers, and if aksed pure autonomic fibers, then prefer B fibers, and dont confuse B fibers with A beta fibers)

37. Definitive diagnosis of TB = sputum AFB38.Extraembryonic coelomic membrane = endoderm 39.Not isotonic to plasma = 5% dextrose water 40.Ventricular filling-= 3rd heart sound ( S1 = isovolumic contraction, S2 = isovol relaxation & S4 = atrial kick )

41.Organ which utilizes glucose – brain ( if asked cell then click Rbcs) 42.Lower motor neuron lesion = flaccid paralysis

43.CNS myelination = Oligodendrocytes

44.Flight or fright Stimulation = Decrease release of bronchial secretions

45.Atrial fibrillation = Pulse deficit

46.Hot sunny day, sudden collapse = Excessive sweating47.C1 vertebra feature = lacks vertebral body

48.Dec plasma proteins = Inc GFR

49.Cardiac reserve = Max % by which CO can be inc above normal 50.Osmosis depends = no of particles

51.5% dextrose in large amount given = ADH inhibition 52.Betel nut chewing causes = sub mucosal fibrosis 53.TB antibodies are = Cell bound

54.Regarding HIV = decreases helper T cells

55.Most imp response in shock as a whole = CNS ischemic response 56.In Iron def anemia in pregnacy, Increased = TIBC

57.Acute glomerunephritis proteinuria = Basement membrane defect 58.Motor unit = single motor nerve fiber innervates multiple muscle fibers

59. Extension of Hip and Flexion of Leg is by = Semitendinous60.Long Thoraccic Nerve Supply = Serratus Anterior

61. Correct Sequence of Protien Synthesis is =mRNA Cytoplasm,Ribosome,tRna,AminoAcids

62.All true regarding Breast Peau de orange appearance Except = Orange Brown Appearance is because of the Necrosis

63.Lady with leg Swelling from last 5 months with no history of fever

and coug hbut cxr show bilateral peural effusion Derranged Lfts and Rt Heart Enlargement = Recurrent Thromboembolism 64.Estrogen, Progesteron and Testosteron acts Via = Transcription (

All steroid hormones act on Genes as they can easily cross membrane and need no cell surface receptors )

65.Complication Associated with Trochanteric Fracture is = Pulmonary Emolism

66.GVE to palate Muscle is via = Dorsal Vagal Nucleus (G= Gen sensation ie not special like smell taste etc , V= Visceral ie Stomach ,Gut etc, E= Efferent ie nerves Exiting from CNS)

67.Max increase in ECF Volume due to = Infusion of Hypertonic Solution.

68.internal carotid a damage, bleeding, at what vertebral tubercle u will press to stop bleed = 6th cervical

69.Cysticercosis caused by = ingesting eggs of tenia solium

70.Which drug has more effect on cox2 than cox1 = celexocib ( if asked more selective cox2 , prefer celecoxib, if asked potent cax2 , prefer Meloxicam then )

71.Suboccipital n supply which muscle = rectus capitis posterior 72.Regarding intercostobrchial nerve true is = 2nd intercostal sensory

73.Normal resonance are = right 2nd to 4th midclvicular line

74.In asian population most common cause of macrocytosis =alchol (if asked in our country then prefer liver disease)

75.RCA after giving marginal branch obstruction affect = AV node(BRS BCQ)

76.Penile urethra rupture = scrotum under colles fascia ( note the MNEMONIC

PUS = Penile Urethra Scrotum/ Superficial perinial pouch BUS = Bulbar Urethra Superficial perinial pouch

MUD = membranous urethra Deep pouch )77.Middle rectal artery branch of, = .internal iliac

78.Chlamydial infection causing chlamydia psittacosis is,, =.obligate intracellular

79.Scenario of granuloma with yellow pigment = Actinomyeces80.Painful papule at labia = hsv II(HSV I is on lips Face , but now a days the rule is not followed strickly)

81.most perinium and pelvis nerve supplied by, = pudendal

82.Which of the following Maintain flexor tone of arm mainly =rubro spinal( note that rubroSpinal is for flexor tone while vestibulospinal tract is for extensor tone )

83.Lower motor neuron lesion. = muscle wasting

84.Hemisetion with total spinal section differentaiad by =spinal shock

85.Which one is most common exocrine pancreas tumor =ductal adenocarcinoma

86.Delayed action of insulin = stimulate mRNA transcription for lipogenesis

87.Gas having maximum diffusion capacity in body fluids =CO2 (Max affinity is of Co and Maximum Diffusion capacity is of Co2) 88.Dec PO2 in blood. = Hypoventiltion

89.A person living on river side since 2yrs, having blindness, opthalmologist indentify which larva = .onchcerosis

90.Antrum of stomach removed what will happen = dec compliance 91.Margins of TB ulcer = .undermined

92.Ulcer due to Hypertension, = Martorell

93.What is the Mechanism of action of PTU = Inhibits synthesis of thyroid hormones

94.Right optic tract lesion causes = left homonymous hemianopia 95.Internal laryngeal nerve passes through = Thyroid n hyoid 96.Which is used for screening congenital abnormality = Estriol 97.Phenyl over alcohol anaesthesia = less painful (Alcohol is Very Potent and Excruciatingly Painful)

98.Patient developed hemolysis due toG6PdD deficiency,,What will happen Next = Self limiting

99.Liver Develops from = ventral mesentry proximal foregut

400.Saphenous nerve is terminal branch of = femoral

1.Adductor muscle hamstring muscle supplied by which nerve = tibial

2.Gracillis is supplied by the nerve = obturator nerve3.Adductor brevis supplied by = ant branch of obturator nerve 4.Fracture of surgical neck of humerus, artery damaged, = post.circumflex humeral

5.Common bile duct parts = omental, retroduodenal, paraduodenal (Bile Duct has 3 parts only)

6.Inion is a landmark of, = external occipital prominence

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