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Important Medical Study MaterialPLAB Study Material

Most Important Points for PLAB





Parkinson type effects plus urinary symptoms are shy drager
syndrome
shy dagger syndrom..wet wobbly wacky..

Pancoast’s SyndromeClassically caused by an apical (superior
pulmonary sulcus) malignant neoplasm of the lung. The neoplasm is
usually bronchogenic in origin (most commonly squamous cell
carcinoma, sometimes adenocarcinoma and large-cell carcinoma).
Presentation
This syndrome results from the invasion of a number of structures and
tissues around the thoracic inlet and may be characterised by:
An ipsilateral invasion of the cervical sympathetic plexus leading to
Horner’s syndrome (miosis, enophthalmos, ptosis; in 14-50% of
patients).[1]
Ipsilateral reflex sympathetic dystrophy may occur.

Shoulder and arm pain (brachial plexus invasion C8-T2) leading to
wasting of the intrinsic hand muscles and paraesthesiae in the medial
side of the arm.
Less commonly, unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy producing
unilateral vocal cord paralysis (hoarse voice ± bovine cough), and/or
phrenic nerve involvement.
There may be arm oedema secondary to the compression of blood
vessels.
Superior vena cava syndrome may also occur.

A conversion disorder causes patients to suffer from neurological
symptoms, such as numbness, blindness, paralysis, or fits without a
definable organic cause. It is thought that symptoms arise in response
to stressful situations affecting a patient’s mental health.

Stockholm syndrome can be seen as a form of traumatic bonding,
which does not necessarily require a hostage scenario, but which
describes “strong emotional ties that develop between two persons
where one person intermittently harasses, beats, threatens, abuses, or
intimidates the other.

Echopraxia (also known as echokinesis[1]) is the involuntary
repetition or imitation of another person’s actions.[1] Similar to
echolalia, the involuntary repetition of sounds and language, it is one
of the echophenomena (“automatic imitative actions without explicit
awareness”).[1] It has long been recognized as a core feature of
Tourette syndrome,

Echolalia (also known as echologia or echophrasia[1]) is the
automatic repetition of vocalizations made by another person

Anosognosia (/æˌnɒsɒɡˈnoʊziə/, /æˌnɒsɒɡˈnoʊʒə/; from Ancient
Greek ἀ- a-, “without”, νόσος nosos, “disease” and γνῶσις gnōsis,
“knowledge”) is viewed as a deficit of self-awareness, a condition in
which a person who suffers certain disability seems unaware of the
existence of his or her disability.

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Couvade syndrome, also called sympathetic pregnancy, is a
proposed condition in which a partner experiences some of the same
symptoms and behavior of an expectant mother.[1] These most often
include minor weight gain, altered hormone levels, morning nausea,
and disturbed sleep patterns.

Apraxia (from Greek praxis, an act, work, or deed[1]) is the inability
to execute learned purposeful movements,[2] despite having the desire
and the physical capacity to perform the movements

Ganser syndrome is a rare dissociative disorder previously classified
as a factitious disorder. It is characterized by nonsensical or wrong
answers to questions or doing things incorrectly, other dissociative
symptoms such as fugue, amnesia or conversion disorder, often with
visual pseudohallucinations and a decreased state of consciousness. It
is also sometimes called nonsense syndrome, balderdash syndrome,
syndrome of approximate answers, pseudodementia, hysterical
pseudodementia or prison psychosis. This last name, prison
psychosis, is sometimes used because the syndrome occurs most
frequently in prison inmates, where it may represent an attempt to gain
leniency from prison or court officials.

Folie à deux (/fɒˈli ə ˈduː/; French pronunciation: [fɔli a dø]; French
for “a madness shared by two”), or shared psychosis, is a psychiatric
syndrome in which symptoms of a delusional belief are transmitted
from one individual to another

The Capgras delusion (or Capgras syndrome) (/kæpˈɡrɑː/,
US dict: kăpgrâ′)

[1] is a disorder in which a person holds a delusion
that a friend, spouse, parent, or other close family member (or pet) has
been replaced by an identical-looking impostor.

The Cotard delusion (also Cotard’s Syndrome and Walking
Corpse Syndrome) is a rare mental illness, in which the afflicted
person holds the delusion that he or she is dead
The delusion of negation is the central symptom in Cotard’s
syndrome. The patient afflicted with this mental illness usually denies
their existence, or the existence of a certain body part, or the existence
of a portion of their body.

Asperger’s syndrome (AS) lies within the autistic spectrum.
Previously it was called high-functioning autism. The main difference
from classic autism is a lack of delayed or retarded cognition and
language. Those with AS are also more likely to seek social
interaction and share activities and friendships.

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Rett’s syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental condition
characterised by loss of spoken language and hand use with the
development of distinctive hand stereotypies. It is a pervasive
developmental disorder (PDD).

Synonym: Ekbom’s syndrome

The term restless legs syndrome (RLS) was to describe a disorder
characterised by sensory symptoms and motor disturbances of the
limbs, mainly occurring during rest.

Tourette’s syndrome is a disorder that starts in childhood. The prime
symptom is to have repeated tics. A tic is a sudden movement or
sound that is repeated over and over. A tic has no purpose and, in
general, you cannot help doing it. For example, repeated blinking,
repeated throat clearing, repeated head nodding, etc. Tics are very
common in children and usually last less than one year.
The main symptom is multiple (many) tics. These are classified as
either motor (movement) or vocal tics.
Motor tics include things such as blinking, head turning, head
nodding, kicking, mouth pouting, mouth opening, mouth twitches, etc.
Vocal tics include things such as throat clearing, coughing, sniffing,
yelling, or making animal sounds.
The most common conditions seen with Tourette’s syndrome are listed
below with how often they occur in children with Tourette’s
syndrome.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or obsessive-compulsive
behaviour (OCB). This occurs in about 5 in 10 children with
Tourette’s syndrome.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, or ADD). This occurs
in about 6 in 10 children with Tourette’s syndrome.
Self-harming behaviours such as head banging occur in about 3 in 10
children with Tourette’s syndrome.

A patient with Serum Na of 122 mmol\L, the following are likely
causes:
DKA.
Hypoadrenalism.
Prolonged Infusion of 5% Dextrose.
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion.

In young lady psychologically disturbed and drinks water
excessively

According to patient.co, sleep alarms is the best option in
uncomplicated mild-mod enuresis. Desmopressin for severe symptoms
or when immediate effect is needed. Behavioral therapy for daytime
symptoms only. Please correct me if I’m wrong.

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Osler weber rendu syndrome ( hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia).
Family history is suggesting it in the scenario as it is Autosomal
dominant
As all other tests are normal , Upper gastrointenstinal endoscopy (
UGIE ) should be done to check for melena

Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome and Laurence-Moon-Biedl-Bardet
syndrome are no longer considered valid terms, because the patients of
Laurence and Moon had paraplegia, but no polydactyly and obesity,
which are the main characteristics of the Bardet-Biedl syndrome.
[1]

Features
These are:[2]
Short stature.
Retinitis pigmentosa, nystagmus, choroidal atrophy, cataract and
squint.
Micropenis with hypoplastic scrotum.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
General learning disability.
Speech delay and deficit.
Ataxia with spastic paraplegia.

Renal anomalies, eg clubbing, diverticula or calyceal cysts.
Goodpasture syndrome (GPS; also known as Goodpasture’s
disease, anti-glomerular basement antibody disease, or anti-GBM
disease) is a rare autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the
lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and to kidney
failure

The American College of Rheumatology has identified six criteria for
the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome:[2]
Asthma (wheezing, expiratory rhonchi).
Eosinophilia of more than 10% in peripheral blood.
Paranasal sinusitis.
Pulmonary infiltrates (may be transient).

Histological confirmation of vasculitis with extravascular eosinophils.
Mononeuritis multiplex or polyneuropathy.

Syringomyelia is a rare condition in which there is fluid-filled tubular
cyst (syrinx) within the central, usually cervical, spinal cord. The
syrinx can elongate, enlarge and expand into the grey and white matter
and, as it does so, it compresses the nervous tissue of the corticospinal
and spinothalamic tracts and the anterior horn cells. This leads to
various neurological symptoms and signs, including pain, paralysis,
stiffness and weakness in the back, shoulders and extremities.
Syringomyelia may also cause loss of extreme temperature sensation,
particularly in the hands, and a cape-like loss of pain and temperature
sensation along the back and arms. Symptoms typically vary
depending on the extent and location of the syrinx. 50% of patients
(when all types of syrinxes are considered) experience no or only mild
disability.

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