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PLAB Study Material

CVS Oneliners by Swammy – Mock for PLAB

CVS OnelinerS by Swammy – Mock for PLAB




  1. sudden onset back pain>>>leading to severe abdominal pain>>> o/e pale , sweaty ,restless>>> pulse high, bp low>>>> pulsatile abdominal mass= RUPTURED ABDOMINAL AORTA
  2. oral penicillin>>> perioral itching, thirst, skin rash >>>collapses = ANAPHYLAXIS
  3. tampons>>> offensive vaginal discharge >>>pallor , sweating, pulse 130, bp80/40 =STAPHYLOCOCCAL SEPSIS
  4. 16year old boy>>>fall from a horse>>> upper left abdominal pain, left shoulder tip pain, pale, sweaty>>>pulse 110=SPLENIC RUPTURE
  5. middle aged female>>> surgery >>> chronic asthmatic on oral prednisolone>>> 4hours post op circulatory collapse>>> normal ecg , cxr>>>no intraabdominal bleed >>>no drug allergy, DVT prophylaxis given =ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY
  6. .M.C.C of cardiovascular cause of death in the UK= ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE
  7. treatment with warfarin in atrial fibrillation reduces the risk of stroke
  8. autosomal dominant with skeletal manifestations=MARFANS SYNDROME
  9. light to moderate consumption of alcohol is protective in ischaemic heart disease
  10. ACEinh following MI improves morbidity in LVF
  11. shortness of breathness + angioedema=ANAPHYLAXIS
  12. fracture of femur and pelvis >>> circulatory collapse= HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK
  13. post MI shock=CARDIOGENIC SHOCK
  14. perforated gall bladder>>>circulatory collapse>>>drowsy and warm peripheries= SEPTIC GRAM NEGATIVE SEPTICAEMIA
  15. Pulse increased, jvp raised>>>ecg:T wave inversion in V1-V3 = PULMONARY EMBOLISM
  16. pulse increased >>>cxr-absent vascular markings on the right side>>>remaining investigations normal=PNEUMOTHORAX
  17. Old MI>>>increased pulse , jvp normal= AORTIC STENOSIS
  18. pulse increased and irregular >>> cxr-absent vascular markings on the left side>>>jvp raised =PNEUMOTHORAX
  19. pulse and temperature increased >>> lower lobe consolidation =PNEUMONIA
  20. Pregnant female>>>tachycardia 160bpm>>>no response to adenosine grin emoticon.C. CARDIOVERSION (?SVT)
  21. refractory pulmonary edema and cardiac failure >>>already on furosemide>>>continues to deteriorate =PRESCRIBE THIAZIDES
  22. diabetes + hypertension=ACEinh (captopril)
  23. family h/o sudden death>>> s/o HOCM= BETA BLOCKER
  24. 30 year old (<55years)>>> BP 160/100>>>BMI 27 =ACEinh
  25. 35 year old (<55 year) >>>BP 160/100 >>> BMI 33 =ACEinh
  26. 50year old, hypertensive = ACEinh
  27. Usg shows dissecting aortic aneurysm >>>next best step=IMMEDIATE SURGERY
  28. mitral stenosis>>> o/e finger clubbing and splinter haemorrhage =INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS
  29. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS = enlarged heart+ hypothyroidism >>> mechanism :autoimmune
  30. homeless man>>>cardiac failure >>>o/e spider naevi and cxr-enlarged heart, bp normal = CAUSE:NUTRITIONAL (ALCOHOL)
  31. bicuspid aortic valve>>> fainting episode = CONGENITAL (turners)
  32. mitral valve prosthesis inserted>>> high fever+new murmur=INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS
  33. central chest pain ×2hours , continued >>>sweating, anxious>>>smoker =MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
  34. 12 days post partum>>>left sided chest pain and SOB =PULMONARY EMBOLISM
  35. young tall thin man>>> sudden SOB and left chest pain =PNEUMOTHORAX (MARFANS)
  36. old man >>>epigastric discomfort on exertion>>>2 hours =MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
  37. post viral illness>>>left sided chest pain >>> worse on inspiration =PLEURISY (?pneumonia )
  38. fever+murmur >>>scientific basis=INFECTIVE
  39. breathlessness + bicuspid aortic valve>>>scientific basis= CONGENITAL
  40. alcoholic + enlarged heart>>> scientific basis= NUTRITIONAL
  41. prosthetic heart valve +INR 3.7 >>>scientific basis= WARFARIN OVERDOSAGE (INR 2-3)
  42. swelling in leg+ hoarseness of voice >>> scientific basis=HORMONAL ???
  43. post anteriorMI + thrombolysis >>> presents after 2 hours with pulse 140 and bp 90/40 >>>ecg-long run of VT = treatment = D.C. CARDIOVERSION (unstable)
  44. chronic renal failure on dialysis>>>low grade fever +abdominal pain >>>develops broad complex tachycardia (broad QRS) >>>BP 80/50 >>> treatment =CALCIUM GLUCONATE (HYPERKALAEMIA)
  45. BPH + high BP >>>treatment =TERAZOSIN
  46. .diabetic+ rental failure + hypertensive >>> treatment =ACEinh ( lisinopril)
  47. old lady+ glaucoma + hypertension >>>treatment = BETA BLOCKER (BETAXOLOL)
  48. paroxysmal atrial fibrillation >>>most appropriate treatment = SOTALOL
  49. Pregnancy induced hypertension >>> bp control = METHYL DOPA (first line-labetalol)
  50. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA =hypertension + glycosuria + sweating , flushing, diarrhoea >>>treatment =PHENOXYBENZAMINE F/B PROPRANOLOL
  51. Diverticulitis > Intestinal perforation>>> rigid abdomen>> Gas under the diaphragm
  52. Trauma>> Central chest pain >>> Pulses and bp different in each arm>>> Aotic dissection>>> chest X- ray >>> Widening of the mediatinum
  53. H/O angina>>> now severe crushing left sided chest pain>>> radiating to BACK and NECK>>> ECG: post MI >>>> X-ray will be NORMAL
  54. Stabbed on the right side of the chest >>> Breathless and distressed >> RR= 32 bpm>>> So2 = 85%>>> right side of the chest not moving well>>> LUNG COLLAPSE >>> CXR= Right sided absent vascular marking
  55. Oesophageal rupture >>>> Free mediastinal gas
  56. Malaise + fever + cough + dullness in the left lower lobe === Streptococcus pneumonia >>> Inv of choice CXR
  57. Long distance air travel >> sharp chest pain >> breathlessness >>> CXR and ECG normal >>> Next most appropriate investigation = V/Q scan but Most APPROPIATE is CTPA
  58. Tall young man >>> sudden chest pain+ breathlessness >>> on cycling >>> Dx= Pneumothorax >>> Inv : CXR
  59. Chest pain radiating to left arm >>> ECG : normal >> next MOST APPROPIATE test = Cardiac enzymes >>> Dx : MI ????
  60. Obese ,man >>> episodic anterior chest pain >> particularly at night X 3days >>> ??? GERD >>> Inv of  Oesophageo gastroduodenoscopy
  61. Wt loss + diarrhea + palpitations >>>> ECG : simus rhythm >>> Dx : Thyrotoxicosis
  62. Missed beats at rest >> Aggravated by coughing , tiredness , stress >>> Disappears during exercise >>> Dx: VENTRICULAR ECTOPICS
  63. 63 year+ IHD+ fast irregular pulse + intermittent palpitations for few months ( H/o ischaemic heart disease) >>>> Dx: Atrial fibrillation
  64. ANXIETY= chest tightness + heart racing + episodes lasts for few minutes to hours + Sinus rhythm + ECG: normal
  65. ATRIAL FIBRILLATION = h/o rheumatic fever + intermittent fast irregular palpitations+ systolic murmur radiating to the axilla+ soft diastolic murmur at the apex
  66. COMPLETE HEART BLOCK= recurrent chest pain + dypsnea 12 hours post acute MI+ pulse rate 40 bpm .
  67. ACUTE PERICARDITIS= recurrent left sided chest pain+ worse on inspiration+ 4days after acute MI+ ECG : wide spread ST elevation
  68. Rupture Mitral valve chordate= acute breathlessness 5 days post MI+ new loud pan systolic murmur in the apex
  69. Acute LVF = Pul oedema + irregular pulse 140bpm+ 24 hours after MI
  70. Pulmonary embolum= acute MI+ post ot + breathlessness and right sided expiratory pain after 5
  71. Complete heart block >> site – Bundle of his
  72. Reflux of blood into left atrium>> Mitral valve dysfunction
  73. Failure of closure of foramen ovale >>> Interatrial septum
  74. Left ventricle >>> most common site of Cardiac aneyrysm
  75. Endocarditis in IV drug abusers>>> Tricuspid valve
  76. Rapid pounding = VT

Slow pounding – Heart block

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