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Syllabus for Medical and Dental Colleges Admission Test (MDCAT) 2017

Structure of the Question Paper for Medical and Dental Colleges Admission Test (MDCAT) 2017

Number of Questions per Subject: 

1. Biology : 88
2. Chemistry : 58
3. Physics : 44
4. English : 30
Total :  220



For F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.

1. Cell Biology
2. Biological Molecules
3. Microbiology
4. Kingdom Animalia
5. Human Physiology
6. Bioenergetics
7. Biotechnology
8. Ecosystem
9. Evolution
10. Genetics



  • Animal and plant cell
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell
  • Structure and function of cellular organelles

Learning outcomes:

Students should be able to:
a) Compare and contrast the structure of typical animal and plant cell.
b) Compare and contrast the structure of Prokaryotic cell with Eukaryotic cell.
c) Define the terms diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, passive transport, endocytosis and exocytosis and explain the basics of Fluid Mosaic
Model of Cell Membrane.
d) Outline the structure and function of the following organelles:
Nucleus, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Mitochondria, Centrioles,
Ribosomes, Peroxisomes, Glyoxisomes, Cytoskeleton, Lysosomes.



  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Lipids
  • Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
  • Enzymes

Learning outcomes:

Students should be able to:
a) Define the terms: monomer, polymer, macromolecules, discuss Carbohydrates:
Monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, and
b) Explain the structure of amino acids and peptide bond formation.
c) Explain the structure of primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary proteins and
their importance.
d) Describe Lipids: Acylglycerols, Waxes, Phospholipids, Terpenoids and their
e) Describe the structure of DNA as hereditary material along its composition and
f) Give the structure and types of RNA (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) and their function in
the cell.
g) Define enzyme and describe its characteristics.

h) Define the following terms:

Coenzyme, Co-factor, Activator, Prosthetic group, Apoenzyme and Holoenzyme.
i) Explain the mode / mechanism of enzyme action.
j) Explain the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and substrate
concentration on the rate of enzyme catalyzed reaction.
k) Explain the effects of reversible and irreversible, competitive and noncompetitive
inhibitors on the rate of enzyme activity.



  • Virus
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi

Learning Outcomes:

Students should be able to:
a) Have the knowledge of discovery and structure of Viruses.
b) Discuss viral diseases in humans with signs, symptoms and cure (hepatitis,
measles and mumps, polio, herpes).
c) Explain the mechanism of action of Retroviruses and describe Acquired
Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
d) Describe the life cycle of Bacteriophage including:
 Lytic cycle
 Lysogenic cycle

e) Explain the structure and types of bacteria (cocci, bacilli and spiral).

f) Discuss in detail:
 Gram +ve bacteria
 Gram –ve bacteria
 Nutrition in bacteria
 Reproduction in bacteria

g) Discuss the control of bacteria by physical and chemical methods.
h) Define fungi.
i) Describe the life cycle of fungus (Rhizopus).
j) Discuss useful and harmful fungi to mankind.
k) Describe structure and reproduction in fungi.



  • Basic terminology
  • Medically important phyla
  • Learning outcomes:

Students should be able to:
a) Define the following terms:
Coelomates, Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates, Radiata, Bilateria

b) Describe the medical importance of following phyla:
i. Platyhelminthes (Taenia solium, Fasciola hepatica)
ii. Aschelminthes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis,
Ancylostoma duodenale)
iii. Annelida (Hirudinea medicinalis)
iv. Arthropoda (mosquito, lice, Tse-tse fly, common housefly)
v. Mollusca (snail)



a) Digestive system
b) Gas exchange
c) Transportation
d) Homeostasis
e) Nervous system
f) Reproduction
g) Support and Movement
h) Hormonal control
i) Immunity

Learning outcomes:

a) Digestive System:

Students should be able to:

I. Describe the anatomy of digestive system and specify the digestion in:
i. Oral cavity (role of saliva and enzymes)
ii. Pharynx (swallowing)
iii. Oesophagus (peristalsis, anti-peristalsis)
iv. Stomach (chemical and mechanical digestion)
v. Small intestine (Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum)
vi. Large intestine (Caecum, Colon, Rectum)
II. Discuss disorders related to nutrition (Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa).
b) Gas Exchange:

Students should be able to:

I. Understand the anatomy of respiratory system (Nostrils, Trachea and
Lungs), functions of cartilage, cilia and goblet cells.
II. Explain the mechanism of breathing (Inspiration and Expiration).
III. Know how blood carries oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and
body tissues.

IV. Discuss structure and role of respiratory pigments e.g.; (Haemoglobin,
V. Discuss the respiratory disorders with causes and symptoms
(Tuberculosis, Emphysema and Lung Cancer).

c) Transport:

Students should be able to:

I. Describe the structure of Heart (external and internal structure),
difference in left and right chamber of heart, SA node and AV node.
II. Describe the Cardiac Cycle, ECG and Blood pressure (systolic and
III. Explain structure of blood vessels (Arteries, Veins, Capillaries) and
arterial disorder (atherosclerosis).
IV. Describe Blood and its composition; plasma and blood cells (red blood
cells, white blood cells and platelets)
V. Discuss the following circulatory disorders with symptoms and causes:
Thrombosis, Embolism, Myocardial infarction, Cerebral Infarction.
VI. Understand components of lymphatic System: Lymph, Lymph Vessels,
Lymph Nodes

d) Homeostasis:

Students should be able to:
I. Understand the terms homeostasis, internal and external stimuli,
receptors, central control, coordination system, effectors and negative
II. Describe the structure of kidney and its functions, structure of
nephron with associated blood vessels, ultrafiltration, reabsorption
and formation of urine.
III. Explain the terms osmoregulation and thermoregulation.
IV. Explain types of kidney problems (Kidney stones and Renal failure)
and cures (Lithotripsy, Kidney transplant and Dialysis-peritoneal and

e) Nervous System:

Students should be able to:

I. Describe Nervous System and its types.
II. Explain Central Nervous System including forebrain, mid brain, hind brain
and spinal cord.
III. Explain Peripheral Nervous System and its types (Autonomic and
IV. Describe neurons (Associative, Motor and Sensory Neurons).
V. Describe nerve impulse and how it propagates.
VI. Understand the concept of synapse and passage of nerve impulse, role of
VII. Discuss the nervous disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy and
Alzheimer’s disease).
VIII. Understand the Biological Clock and Circadian Rhythms.

f) Reproduction:

Students should be able to:
I. Explain the structure and function of reproductive system in male.
II. Explain the structure and function of reproductive system in female.
III. Describe menstrual cycle with its stages.
IV. Explain the stages of gametogenesis (Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis).
V. Discuss the following Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s) with their
causative agents, symptoms and cure: Gonorrhea, Syphilis, AIDS.

g) Support & Movement:

Students should be able to:

I. Human skeleton:
i. Define and explain terminologies: Bone, Cartilage, Tendon, and Ligament.
ii. Describe Axial & Appendicular Skeleton.
iii. Describe Joints and their types (fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial, pivot and

II. Muscular system:
i. Compare the types of muscles (smooth, cardiac and skeletal).
ii. Explain structure and function of skeletal muscle.
iii. Explain the concept and working of sarcomere, ultrastructure of
myofilaments, sliding filament model.
iv. Understand the sources of energy for muscle contraction.
v. Describe Muscle Fatigue, Tetany, and Cramp with their causes.

h) Hormonal control:

Students should be able to:

I. Describe hormones and their composition.
II. Discuss the effect of hypothalamus on the pituitary gland.
III. Describe the knowledge of pituitary gland and its hormones.
i. Anterior lobe: Somatotrophin, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone,
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Gonadotrophins (Follicle Stimulating
Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Luteotropic Hormone
(LTH), Prolactin).
ii. Posterior lobe: Vasopressin, Oxytocin.
IV. Explain the hormones of thyroid and parathyroid: Thyroxin (T3, T4),
Calcitonin, Parathormone.
V. Discuss the adrenal gland in detail:
i. Adrenal cortex (cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, androgens).
ii. Adrenal medulla (adrenaline and nor adrenaline).
VI. Explain hormones of Islets of Langerhans i.e. Insulin, Glucagon.
VII. Describe the hormones of alimentary canal (Gastrin, Secretin).
VIII. Discuss the hormones of ovaries and testes (oestrogen, progesterone,
IX. Explain the disorders of endocrine gland i.e. diabetes mellitus, diabetes
insipidus, goiter, dwarfism, gigantism

i) Immunity:

Students should be able to:
I. Define immune system and describe its components:
– Antigen.
– Antibody (structure of antibody).
– Lymphocytes (B and T cells).
II. Describe cell mediated response and humoral immune response.
III. Discuss the types of immunity:
– Active immunity.
– Passive immunity.
IV. Explain vaccination.


Photosynthesis and cellular respiration

Learning outcomes:
Students should be able to:
a) Describe photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids).
b) Understand the concept of absorption and action spectra.
c) Discuss light dependent stage (cyclic and non-cyclic phosphorylation).
d) Discuss light independent stage (Calvin cycle).
e) Describe the respiration at cellular level including:
 Glycolysis (with preparatory and oxidative phase), Kreb’s cycle (with
reference to production of NADH, FADH and ATP), Electron Transport
Chain with its carriers.
 Anaerobic Respiration and its types (alcoholic and lactic acid



  • DNA technology
  • Gene therapy
  • Tissue culture
  • Cloning

Learning outcomes:

Students should be able to:
a) Describe Recombinant DNA Technology and its application (e.g. Insulin
b) Describe the principle and steps of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
c) Understand the following terms:
-DNA Analysis (Finger Printing, Gene Sequencing).
d) Explain Gene therapy with reference to how genetic diseases (i.e. cystic
fibrosis, severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, hypercholesterolemia)
can be treated with gene therapy.
e) Describe the detail of Transgenic Organisms (Bacteria, Plants and Animals),
Tissue Culture, Cloning and their applications.



  • Biological succession
  • Impacts of Human activity on ecosystem
  • Energy flow in ecosystem
  • Explain learning outcomes:

Students should be able to:
a) Define succession and describe various stages of xerosere.
b) Describe the significance of human activity on ecosystem such as Population,
Deforestation, Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Effect, Acid rain, Eutrophication
and Pesticides.
c) Describe Nitrogen cycle (ammonification, nitrification, assimilation, depletion).

d) Define and explain Energy Flow, Trophic Levels (producers, consumers,
decomposers), Productivity, Food chain, Food web.



  • Darwin’s theory
  • Lamarck’s theory
  • Evidences of evolution

Learning outcomes:

Students should be able to:

a) Compare the theory of Darwin and Lamarck.
b) Discuss evidences of evolution from Paleontology, Comparative anatomy,
Molecular biology and Biogeography.
c) Explain Hardy-Weinberg Theorem and factors affecting gene / allele frequency

10. Genetics


  • Mendelian Inheritance
  • Genetic linkage
  • Gene control & expression
  • Sex Determination
  • Cell Division
  • Genetic disorders

Learning outcomes:

Students should be able to:

a) Explain the terms: Gene, locus, allele, dominant, recessive, co-dominant,
linkage, F1 and F2, phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous,
mutation, epistasis, multiple allele, Rh factor, dominance relations, polygenic
b) Explain law of segregation and law of independent assortment through Punnet
square, solve problems related to monohybrid, dihybrid crosses and testcross.
Page 12 of 43
c) Discuss gene linkage and sex linkage in human (haemophilia and colour
d) Discuss hypothesis about DNA Replication, Meselson and Stahl experiment and
mechanism of replication.
e) Explain mechanism of gene expression: Transcription and Translation.
f) Describe Genetic code and its properties.
g) Explain sex chromosomes and discuss different systems of sex determination
h) Know cell cycle and its phases.
i) Describe events of mitosis and meiosis along with their significance.
j) Discuss meiotic errors (Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s



For F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.


A. Physical Chemistry
1. Fundamental Concepts
2. States of Matter
3. Atomic Structure
4. Chemical Bonding
5. Chemical Energetics
6. Electrochemistry
7. Chemical Equilibrium
8. Reaction Kinetics

B. Inorganic Chemistry
1. Periods
2. Groups
3. Transition elements
4. Elements of Biological Importance

C. Organic Chemistry
1. Fundamental Principles
2. Hydrocarbon
3. Alkyl Halides
4. Alcohols and Phenols
5. Aldehydes and Ketones
6. Carboxylic Acid
7. Amino Acids
8. Macromolecules
9. Environmental Chemistry



In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Define relative atomic, molecular and formula masses, based on the 12C scale
and concept of isotopes.
b) Explain mole in terms of the Avogadro’s constant.
c) Apply mass spectrometric technique in determining the relative atomic mass of
an element using the mass spectral data provided.
d) Calculate empirical and molecular formulae, using combustion data.
e) Understand stoichiometric calculations using mole concept involving.
i) Reacting masses
ii) Volume of gases
iii) Percentage yield
f) Describe and explain following concentration units of solutions:
i) Percentage composition
ii) Molarity
iii) Mole fraction


In this topic, student should be able to:

a) Understand gaseous state with reference to:
i) Postulates of kinetic molecular theory
ii) Gas laws: Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, Avogadro’s law and gas equation
(PV=nRT) and calculations involving gas laws.
iii) Deviation of real gases from ideal behaviour at low temperature and high
iv) Conditions necessary for gasses to approach ideal behavior.
b) Discuss liquid state with reference to:
Evaporation, vapour pressure, boiling and hydrogen bonding in water.
c) Explain the lattice structure of a crystalline solid with special emphasis on:
i) Giant ionic structure, as in sodium chloride.

ii) Simple molecular, as in iodine.
iii) Giant molecular, as in diamond; silicon (IV) oxide.
iv) Hydrogen-bonded, as in ice.
d) Outline the importance of hydrogen bonding to the physical properties of
substances, including NH3, H2O, C2H5OH and ice.
e) Suggest from quoted physical data the type of structure and bonding present in
a substance.


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Identify and describe the proton, neutron and electron in terms of their relative
charges and relative masses.
b) Discuss the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric
c) Calculate the distribution of mass and charges within an atom from the given
d) Deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms
and ions for a given proton and nucleon numbers/charge.
i) Describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in
terms of proton number and nucleon number.
ii) Distinguish between isotopes on the basis of different numbers of
neutrons present.
f) Describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the
principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals.
g) Describe the shapes of s, p and d-orbitals.
h) State the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given, the proton
number/charge for period 1, 2, 3 and 4 (hydrogen to Krypton).
i) Explain:
i) Ionization energy.
ii) The factors influencing the ionization energies of elements.

iii) The trends in ionization energies across a Period and down a Group of
the Periodic Table.
j) Explain and use the term Electron Affinity.


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Characterize electrovalent (ionic) bond as in sodium chloride and calcium oxide.
b) Use the ‘dot-and-cross’ diagrams to explain:
i) Covalent bonding, as in hydrogen(H2); oxygen(O2); chlorine(Cl2);
hydrogen chloride; carbon dioxide; methane and ethane.
ii) Co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding, as in the formation of the
ammonium ion in H3N+–
-BF3 and H3O+.
c) Describe the shapes and bond angles in molecules by using the qualitative
model of Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory up to 4 pairs of
electron including bonded electron pair and lone pair around central atom.
d) Describe covalent bonding in terms of orbital overlap, giving  and  bonds.
e) Explain the shape of and bond angles in ethane, ethene and benzene molecules
in terms of  and  bonds.
f) Describe hydrogen bonding, using ammonia and water as simple examples of
molecules containing N-H and O-H groups.
g) Explain the terms bond energy, bond length and bond polarity
(electronegativity difference) and use them to compare the nature of covalent
bonds i.e. polar and non-polar.
h) Describe intermolecular forces (Van der Waal’s forces), based on permanent
and induced dipoles, as in HCl, CHCl3, Halogens and in liquid noble gases.
i) Describe metallic bonding in terms of positive ions surrounded by mobile
electrons (sea of electrons).
j) Describe, interpret and/or predict the effect of different types of bonding (ionic
bonding; covalent bonding; hydrogen bonding; Van der Waal’s forces and
metallic bonding) on the physical properties of substances.
k) Deduce the type of bonding present in a substance from the given information


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Understand concept of energy changes during chemical reactions with examples
of exothermic and endothermic reactions.
b) Explain and use the terms:
i) Enthalpy change of reaction and standard conditions, with particular
reference to: formation; combustion; solution; neutralization and
ii) Bond energy (ΔH positive, i.e. bond breaking).
iii) Lattice energy (ΔH negative, i.e. gaseous ions to solid lattice).
c) Find heat of reactions/neutralization from experimental results using
mathematical relationship i.e. ∆H=mc∆T
d) Explain, in qualitative terms, the effect of ionic charge and of ionic radius on the
numerical magnitude of lattice energy.
e) Apply Hess’s Law to construct simple energy cycles, and carry out calculations
involving such cycles and relevant energy terms, with particular reference to:
i) Determining enthalpy changes that cannot be found by direct
experiment, e.g. an enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy change
of combustion.
ii) Born-Haber cycle of NaCl (including ionization energy and electron


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Describe and explain redox processes in terms of electron transfer and/or of
changes in oxidation number.
b) Define the terms:
Standard electrode (redox) potential and Standard cell potential.
c) Describe the standard hydrogen electrode as reference electrode.
d) Describe methods used to measure the standard electrode potentials of metals
or non-metals in contact with their ions in aqueous solution.

e) Calculate a standard cell potential by combining two standard electrode
f) Use standard cell potentials to:
i) Explain/deduce the direction of electron flow in the external circuit.
ii) Predict the feasibility of a reaction.
g) Construct redox equations using the relevant half-equations.
h) State the possible advantages of developing the H2/O2 fuel cell.
i) Predict and to identify the substance liberated during electrolysis from the state
of electrolyte (molten or aqueous), position in the redox series (electrode
potential) and concentration e.g. H2SO4(aq) and Na2SO4(aq).


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Explain, in terms of rates of the forward and reverse reactions, what is meant
by a reversible reaction and dynamic equilibrium.
b) State Le Chatelier’s Principle and apply it to deduce qualitatively the effects of
changes in temperature, concentration or pressure, on a system at equilibrium.
c) Deduce whether changes in concentration, pressure or temperature or the
presence of a catalyst affect the value of the equilibrium constant for a reaction.
d) Deduce expressions for equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations; Kc,
and partial pressures; Kp
e) Calculate the values of equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations or
partial pressures from appropriate data.
f) Calculate the quantities present at equilibrium, given appropriate data.
g) Describe and explain the conditions used in the Haber process.
h) Understand and use the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases.
i) Explain qualitatively the differences in behaviour between strong and weak
acids and bases and the pH values of their aqueous solutions in terms of the
extent of dissociation.
j) Explain the terms pH; Ka; pKa; Kw and use them in calculations.
k) Calculate [H+(aq)] and pH values for strong and weak acids and strong bases.
l) Explain how buffer solutions control pH.
Page 20 of 43
m) Calculate the pH of buffer solutions from the given appropriate data.
n) Show understanding of, and use, the concept of solubility product, Ksp.
o) Calculate Ksp from concentrations and vice versa.
p) Show understanding of the common ion effect.


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Explain and use the terms: rate of reaction; activation energy; catalysis;
rate equation; order of reaction; rate constant; half-life of a reaction; ratedetermining
b) Explain qualitatively, in terms of collisions, the effect of concentration changes
on the rate of a reaction.
c) Explain that, in the presence of a catalyst, a reaction has a different
mechanism, i.e. one of lower activation energy.
d) Describe enzymes as biological catalysts which may have specific activity.
e) Construct and use rate equations of the form
Rate = k[A]m[B]n
with special emphasis on:
i) Zero order reaction
ii) 1
st order reaction
iii) 2
nd order reaction
f) Show understanding that the half-life of a first-order reaction is independent of
initial concentration and use the half-life to calculate order of reaction.
g) Calculate the rate constant from the given data.
h) Name a suitable method for studying the rate of a reaction, from given


In this topic, student should be able to:
Discuss the variation in the physical properties of elements belonging to period
2 and 3 and to describe and explain the periodicity in the following physical
properties of elements.
a) Atomic radius.
b) Ionic radius.
c) Melting point.
d) Boiling point.
e) Ionization energy.


In this topic, student should be able to:
Describe and explain the variation in the properties of group II and VII elements
from top to bottom with special emphasis on:
a) Reactions of group-II elements with oxygen and water.
b) Properties of halogens and uses of chlorine in water purification and as
bleaching agent.
c) Reaction of chlorine with sodium hydroxide (disproportionation reactions of
d) Uses of Nobel gases (group VIII).


In this topic, student should be able to:
Discuss the chemistry of transition elements of 3-d series with special emphasis
a) Electronic configuration.
b) Variable oxidation states.
c) Use as a catalyst.
d) Formation of complexes.
e) Colour of transition metal complexes.
Page 22 of 43
4. Compounds of Nitrogen and Sulphur:
In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Describe the inertness of Nitrogen.
b) Manufacture of Ammonia by Haber’s process.
c) Discuss the uses of nitrogenous fertilizers.
d) Describe the presence of Sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere which causes acid
e) Describe only manufacturing of Sulphuric acid by contact method.


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Classify the organic compounds.
b) Suggest how cracking can be used to obtain more useful alkanes and alkenes of
lower masses.
c) Discuss the types of reagents; nucleophile, electrophile and free radicals.
d) Explain isomerism; structural and cis-trans.
e) Discuss the functional group and nomenclature of organic compounds with
reference to IUPAC names of Alkanes, Alkenes, Alcohols, Haloalkanes and
Carboxylic acids.


In this topic, student should be able to:
Describe the chemistry of Alkanes with emphasis on:
a) Combustion.
b) The mechanism of free radical substitution reaction of methane with particular
reference to the initiation, propagation and termination.
Discuss the chemistry of Alkenes with emphasis on:
a) Preparation of alkenes by elimination reactions:
i) Dehydration of alcohols.
ii) Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl halide.

b) Reaction of Alkenes such as:
i) Catalytic hydrogenation.
ii) Halogenation (Br2 addition to be used as a test of an alkene).
iii) Hydration of alkenes.
iv) Reaction with HBr with special reference to Markownikoff’s rule.
v) Oxidation of alkenes using cold alkaline or acidic KMnO4 (Bayer’s reagent)
and using hot concentrated acidic or alkaline KMnO4 for cleavage of
double bond in 2-butene.
vi) Polymerization of ethene.
Discuss chemistry of Benzene with examples
a) Structure of benzene showing the delocalized -orbital which causes stability of
b) Electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene including mechanism of:
i) Nitration
ii) Halogenation (chlorination and bromination)
iii) Friedel Craft’s reaction (Alkylation and acylation)
c) Hydrogenation of benzene ring to form cyclohexane ring.
d) Side chain oxidation of methyl benzene (toluene) and ethyl benzene.
e) Directive influence of substituents on the benzene ring by 2,4 directing and 3,5
directing groups (orientation in Electrophilic Substitution reactions of Benzene).


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Discuss importance of halogenoalkanes in everyday life with special use of
CFCs, halothanes, CCl4, CHCl3 and Teflon.
b) Reaction of alkyl halides such as:
i) SN-reactions, (Reactions of Alkyl halides with aqueous KOH, Alcoholic /
aqueous KCN and Alcoholic / aqueous NH3).
ii) Describe SN1 and SN2 Mechanisms for tertiary butyl chloride and methyl
bromide respectively using aqueous KOH.
iii) Elimination reaction with alcoholic KOH to give alkenes.


In this topic, student should be able to:
Discus Alcohols with reference to:
a) Classification of alcohols into primary, secondary and tertiary.
b) Preparation of ethanol by hydration of ethene using conc. H2SO4 or conc. H3PO4
c) Reaction of alcohol with:
i) K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 (oxidation).
ii) PCl5.
iii) Na-metal.
iv) Alkaline aqueous Iodine (Iodoform Test).
v) Carboxylic acid (Esterification).
d) Dehydration of alcohol to give alkene.
a) Discuss reactions of phenol with:
i) Bromine ii) HNO3 iii) NaOH
b) Explain the relative acidity of water, ethanol and phenol.


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Describe the structure of aldehyde and ketones.
b) Discuss preparation of aldehydes and ketones by oxidation of alcohols.
c) Discuss following reactions of aldehydes and ketones:
i) Common to both;
 2,4-DNPH to detect the presence of carbonyl group
 HCN to show mechanism of nucleophilic addition reaction
 Reduction with NaBH4 or LiAlH4
ii) Reactions in which Aldehydes differs from ketones i.e. Oxidation with
Tollen’s reagent and Fehling’s solution.
iii) Reaction which show presence of CH3CO– group in aldehydes and
ketones Triiodomethane test (Iodo form test) using alkaline aqueous


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Show preparation of ethanoic acid by oxidation of ethanol or by acidic
hydrolysis of Ethane nitrile (CH3CN).
b) Discuss the reactions of ethanoic acid with emphasis on:
i) Salt formation.
ii) Esterification.
iii) Acid chloride formation (acyl chloride).
iv) Amide formation.
c) Describe the strength of organic acids relative to chloro substituted acids.
d) Explain the relative acidic strength of carboxylic acids, phenols and alcohols.


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Describe the general structure of -amino acids found in proteins.
b) Classify the amino acids on the basis of nature of R-group.
c) Describe Acid base properties of amino acids and formation of Zwitter ions.
d) Understand peptide bond formation.


In this topic, student should be able to describe and explain
a) Formation and uses of Addition polymers such as polyethene, polystyrene and
polyvinylchloride (PVC).
b) Formation and uses of Condensation polymers such as polyesters (terylene),
polyamide (Nylon-6,6).
c) Structure of proteins i.e. primary and secondary structures.
d) Structure and function of nucleic acid (DNA).


In this topic, student should be able to:
a) Describe air pollutants.
b) Understand the chemistry and cause of Acid Rain.
c) Depletion of Ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).



For F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.

1. Measurement
2. Motion and Force
3. Work, Energy and Power
4. Circular Motion
5. Oscillations
6. Waves
7. Light
8. Heat and Thermodynamics
9. Electrostatics
10. Current – Electricity
11. Electromagnetism
12. Electromagnetic Induction
13. Deformation of Solids
14. Electronics
15. Modern Physics
16. Nuclear Physics

1. Measurement:

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Define Physical quantities and understand that all physical quantities consist of
numerical magnitude and a unit.
b) Define International System of Units and understand SI base units of physical
quantities and their derived units.
c) Use prefixes and symbols to indicate decimal, submultiples or multiples of both
base and derived units: pico (p), nano (n), micro (), milli (m), centi (c), deci
(d), kilo (k), mega (M), giga (G), tera (T).
d) Understand Errors and uncertainties including:
– systematic error and random error.
– fractional uncertainty and percentage uncertainty.
– assessment of total uncertainty in the final results.

2. Motion and Force

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Understand the concept of displacement, distance, speed, velocity and
b) Understand velocity–time graph.
c) Review equations of motion.
d) Recall Newton’s Laws of motion.
e) Define momentum and describe law of conservation of momentum.
f) Derive and explain the relation between the force and rate of change of
g) Define impulse and understand the concept of
mvf mvi
h) Understand projectile motion and its applications.
i) Define moment of force or torque and use of torque due to force.
j) Define the equilibrium, its conditions and use it to solve problems.

3. Work, Energy and Power

Learning Outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Understand the concept of work in terms of the product of a force and
displacement in the direction of the force.
b) Understand the concept of kinetic energy
c) Understand the concept of potential energy
d) Explain the Interconversion of kinetic energy and potential energy in
gravitational field.
e) Define power in terms of work done per unit time and use power as product of
force and velocity

4. Circular Motion

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Describe angular motion with the concept of angular displacement, angular
velocity and use relation between angular and linear velocity to solve problems.
b) Define centripetal force and use equations and centripetal acceleration equations
c) Understand geostationary orbits.

5. Oscillations

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Define and explain simple harmonic motion with examples.
b) Define and use the terms amplitude, frequency, angular frequency, phase
difference. Express the time period in terms of both frequency and angular
c) Define and use equations
d) Understand that the motion of simple pendulum is simple harmonic and use the
e) Describe the interchange between Kinetic energy and potential energy during
Simple Harmonic Motion.
f) Define free, forced and damped oscillations with practical examples.
g) Understand the concept of Resonance, its advantages and disadvantages.

6. Waves

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Describe progressive waves
b) Define and explain transverse and longitudinal waves.
c) Define stationary waves and determine the wavelength of sound in air columns
for open and closed pipes and in stretched string using stationary waves.
d) Describe Doppler’s Effect and its causes, Recognize the application of Doppler’s

7. Light

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Define and explain interference of light waves with constructive and destructive
b) Describe Young’s Double Slit experiment and understand the concept of fringe
spacing, dark and bright fringes.
c) Explain diffraction grating
d) Explain the basic principle of Optical Fiber.

8. Heat and Thermodynamics

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) State the basic postulates of kinetic theory of gases.
b) Explain the concept of pressure exerted by a gas and derive the relation
c) Solve problems using the equation of state for an ideal gas
e) Understand the concept of internal energy and use the first law of
f) Define and explain specific heat capacity.
g) Describe absolute zero and thermodynamic scale of temperature.

9. Electrostatics

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Describe Coulomb’s Law in the form
in free space or in air.
b) Understand the concept of electric field strength.
c) Use the relation
to calculate the field strength.
d) Use the relations
for the field strength of a point charge in free
space or air.
e) Define electric potential
f) Define and explain capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor
g) Explain energy stored in capacitor

10. Current – Electricity

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Understand the concept of current
b) Describe and understand Ohm’s Law
c) Recall series and parallel Combination of resistors
d) Explain resistance and resistivity
e) Define potential difference and e.m.f
f) Describe power dissipation in resistors
g) Know and use Kirchhoff’s First Law as conservation of charge.
h) Know and use Kirchhoff’s Second Law as conservation of energy.
i) Use Kirchhoff’s Laws to solve problems.

11. Electromagnetism

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Understand magnetic field due to current in a long straight wire.
b) Describe force on current carrying conductor in uniform magnetic field
c) Explain magnetic field due to current carrying solenoid
d) Explain the concept of force on a moving charge in magnetic field
e) Determine the e/m for an electron.

12. Electromagnetic Induction

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Define magnetic flux and its units
b) State and explain Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law.
c) Understand the concept of induced e.m.f and factors affecting on it.
d) Define and explain alternating current
e) Know the principle of transformer and solve problems using for an
ideal transformer.
f) Define and describe the terms period, frequency, peak value and root mean
square value of an alternating current or voltage.

13. Deformation of Solids

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Define and describe the terms stress, strain and Young’s Modulus.
b) Define tensile stress and strain.
c) Describe Hook’s Law.
d) Understand the concept of elastic and plastic deformation of a material.
e) Explain brittle and ductile materials.
f) Explain the concept of strain energy in deformed materials and force –
extension graph.

14. Electronics

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Explain Half and Full wave rectification.
b) Explain the use of single diode for half wave rectification of an alternating

c) Explain the use of four diodes for full wave rectification of an alternating
d) Understand an operational amplifier and its characteristics.
e) Know the applications operational amplifiers as inverting and non-inverting
amplifiers and use relations.

15. Modern Physics

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Describe energy of photon
b) Understand the concept of photoelectric effect, threshold frequency and work
function energy.
c) Explain why the maximum photoelectric energy is independent of intensity
where as photoelectric current is proportional to intensity.
d) Describe Einstein’s Photoelectric equation
e) Define and explain de Broglie wavelength
f) Understand discrete energy levels of hydrogen atom and spectral lines
g) Use the relation
h) Describe the production of X-rays and main features of X-rays tube.
i) Identify use of X-rays.
j) Explain Band Theory and its terms valence band, conduction band and
forbidden band.
Page 35 of 43

16. Nuclear Physics

Learning outcomes:
In this topic the student should be able to:
a) Describe the concept of nucleus and define nucleon number, charge number.
b) Explain radioactivity and emission of radiation.
c) Define the terms activity, decay constant and solve problems using relation
d) Explain half life of radioactive substance
e) Understand nuclear transmutation and conservation of mass, energy,
momentum and charge during nuclear changes.
f) Know the Significance of mass-defect, binding energy
g) Describe nuclear fission and fusion.
h) Know the concept of Hadrons, Leptons and Quarks.



For F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.
The English section shall consist of four parts:

Part I:
It will be comprised of Four Questions in which the candidate will have to
select the appropriate/suitable word from the given alternatives.

Part II:
It will contain sentences with grammatical errors and the candidate will have
to identify the error. There will be Six Questions from this part.

Part III:
There will be Ten Questions consisting of a list of Four sentences each.
The candidate will have to choose the grammatically correct sentence out of
the given four options.

Part IV:
In this part, the candidate will be asked to choose the right synonyms.
Four options will be given and He/She will have to choose the most
appropriate one. There will be Ten Questions from this part.

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